Description of Salat (صفة الصلاة) :
The detail system of salat is narrated in different hadeethes. But in the hadeeth below, there would have got most of the rules. So that we put up its translation as follows :
‘One day Abu Humayd Sa‘edi (R) says to ten sahabis that I am most informed than you about the salat of the Prophet (sm). They say that yes, you say. Then he begins to describe that the Prophet (sm) when stands for salat, says takbeer raising (1) two hands upto shoulder level. Then he recites the qira-’at. Then he makes the ruku raising (2) two hands upto shoulder level. In ruku he puts his two palms on the knees and keeps his head and back strainght. Then at the time of standing straightly from the ruku saying Sami ‘alla-hu liman Hamidah, he raises (3) his two hands upto shoulder level. Then he goes to sijdah saying takbeer and keeps two hands free from two ribs and keeps the toes free (‘pointing towards the Qibla’ -Bukhari H/828; Do, Mishkat H/792).
Then he rises and sits on his left foot straightly, till the bones are properly set on their respective places. Then he goes to 2nd sijdah. Then raises his head saying takbeer and sits on the left foot straightly, till the bones are properly set on their respective places. Then he stands. Then he does the same in the second rak‘at. Then when he rises (for 3rdrak‘at) after the end of 2nd rak‘at, stands with takbeer raising (4) two hands as such as it was in the 1 sttakbeer of tahreemah. Thus he does in the rest. Finally, when he reaches at the last sijdah, after which would turn in Salam, he extends his left foot to the right and sits on the left buttock (قَعَدَ مُتَوَرِّكًا) and then turns in Salam’. On hearing this description, the present ten Sahabis stand saying as Sadaqta (صَدَقْتَ) you have said correct’. The Prophet (sm) used to say his salat in this way’.
Now the discussion about particular matters of salat is given below :
1. Niyat (النية) :
Niyat means ‘determination’. Niyat is indispensable at the beginning of salat. The Prophet (sm) says, إِنَّمَا الْأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّيَّاتِ وَ إِنَّمَا لِكُلِّ امْرِءٍ مَّا نَوَى… ‘All deeds depend upon the determination and every person will get according to what he determines’….  So, for salat one has to make ablution and with clean dresses and fresh body and mind has to stand before Allah in polite manner facing the Ka‘ba with firm determination to seek the satisfaction of his fosterer. Recitation ofNiyat in lips is a new creation. It has no relation with the satat of the Prophet (sm). Many people before starting the salat read ‘Innee wajjahtu…’considering it as a Doa of prayer-mat. This is an anti Sunnah custom. In fact, there is nothing as Doa of the prayer-mat.
2. Takbeer-i-Tahreemah & fixing two hands on the chest (التكبيرة التحريمة ووضع اليد اليمنى على ذراعه اليسرى على الصدر) :
Raising both hands facing the qibla straightening the fingers upto shoulder or ear level and making everything of worldly gain prohibited and with all intents and purposes, will declare greatness of the Lord by saying ‘Alla-hu Akbar’ (Allah is greatest). Then will stand before Allah fixing his eye-sight with the place of sijdah with full of submissive devotion, placing hands on the chest, keeping the right on the left. Allah says, وَقُوْمُوْا ِللهِ قَانِتِيْنَ ‘And you stand before Allah with quite devotion’ (Baqarah 2/238). To raise thumbs alongwith the lobs of two ears, the hadeeth about it, is Za‘eef. About the placement of hands on the chest after takbeer-i-tahreemah, some of famous hadeethes are followed:
(a) Sahl bin Sa‘d (R) says,
كَانَ النَّاسُ يُؤْمَرُوْنَ أَنْ يَّضَعَ الرَّجُلُ يَدَهُ الْيُمْنَى عَلَى ذِرَاعِهِ الْيُسْرَى فِى الصَّلَوةِ، قَالَ أَبُوْ حَازِمٍ: لاَ أَعْلَمُ إِلاَّ يَنْمِىْ ذَالِكَ إِلَى النَّبِىِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ، رواه البخارىُّ-
‘Peoples would have been ordered to place their right hand on the left during salat. Abu Hazem said I know that Sahl bin Sa‘d (R) used to relate it to the Prophet (sm)’.
‘Zera‘ (ذِرَاعٌ) means the hand beginning from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger (Al-Mu‘jamul waseett).
This is explicit that while one will keep right hand on the left, it naturally comes up on the chest. In the following narratives it has been explained clearly. Such as:
(b) Hulb At-Ta’ee (R) says,
رَأَيْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَضَعُ الْيُمْنَى عَلَى الْيُسْرَى عَلَى صَدْرِهِ فَوْقَ الْمَفْصِلِ، رواه أحمدُ-
‘I saw the Prophet (sm) to keep hand on the chest placing right wrist-joint on the left’.
(c) Wayel bin Hujr (R) says,
صَلَّيْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَوَضَعَ يَدَهُ الْيُمْنَى عَلَى يَدِهِ الْيُسْرَى عَلَى صَدْرِهِ، رواه ابْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ وَصَحَّحَهُ-
‘I said salat accompanied with the Prophet (sm). Then I found that He kept His right hand on the left and placed it on the chest’ .
In the above saheeh hadeethes about the placing hands on the chest is clearly expressed. Imam Shawkani says, وَلاَ شَيْءَ فِي الْبَابِ أَصَحُّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ وَائِلِ بْنِ حُجْرٍ الْمَذْكُوْرِ فِيْ صَحِيْحِ ابْنِ خُزَيْمَةَ- ‘For placing hands on the chest during salat, there is no other hadeeth purest than that has been narrated in Saheeh ibnu Khuzaimah by Wayel bin Hujr (R).
This is to note that regarding to place right hand on the left at least 20 hadeethes narrated by 18 Sahabis and 2 Tabe‘iis are there. Ibnu Abdil Barr says, ‘Nothing against these have been narrated by the Prophet (sm) and this was the practice of the most of Sahabis and Tabe‘iis.
Now regarding to place the hands below the navel, four hadeethes and two Athars which have been narrated by four sahabis and two Tabe‘iis in Ahmad, Abu Daud, Musannaf ibnu Abi Shaibah etc. in the books of hadeeth, the comments of Muhadditheen on these are: لاَ يَصْلُحُ وَاحِدٌ مِنْهَا لِلْإِسْتِدْلاَلِ ‘(for being Za‘eef) none of these is acceptable as to take as document’. 
This is to note that at the time of standing in salat, the system of placing hands on the chest by the females and below the navel by the males has got no basis of this difference, neither in hadeeth nor in Athar. Rather this is an axiom that both male and female Muslims would perform Farz and Sunnats of salat in the same rule. 
The purport of fixing hands on the chest: Tibi says, In fixing hands on the chest upon the heart, there is a caution in this content that the slave stands in front of his almighty Lord bending his head with full of humbleness and obedience by fixing hand on the hand on the chest, which cannot be lessen at all. 
3. Sana (دعاء الاستفتاح) :
‘Sana’ (الثناء) means ‘the praise’. This is the benediction for beginning of salat (Doa-i-Istiftah). Placing two hands on the chest keeping aim to the place of prostration with submissive attitude the Musalli will make a good start of his best prayer with following Doa: (See P.15).
4. Reading of Bismillah ( التسمية ) :
After reading Sana i.e. Doa-i-Istiftah, the musalli will read A‘oozubillah and Bismillah silently. Then will readsura Fatiha. This is to note that A‘oozubillah to be read only in the 1strak‘at and not in the successiverak‘ats. In the same way to make Bismillah as the part and parcel ofsura Fatiha has no authentic proof, similarly for Jehri salat reading Bismillah loudly has got no dependable basis in its favour. But it is to be read as to make difference between two Suras’ (Qurtubi).
Imam Qurtubi says, the perfect opinion among the opinions is the opinion of Imam Malek, as he says that the Bismillah is not the part of sura Fatiha’. Because the Quran is not established by khabr-i-wahed i.e. one man narratives. But it is established by irrefutable incessant narratives, where there is no difference of opinion. Ibnul ‘Arabi says that it is sufficient for Bismillah as not to be part of Sura Fatiha is that there is difference of opinion in it, and there would not be any difference of opinion in the Quran. Rather the pure & perfect narrations, where there is no plea against it, prove that the Bismillah is not the part of Sura Fatiha, but it is 30th verse of Sura Namal only. In this matter the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurairah (R) in saheeh Muslim is applicable. 
(1) Anas bin Malik (R) says,
صَلَّيْتُ مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَبِيْ بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَعُثْمَانَ فَلَمْ أَسْمَعْ أَحَدًا مِّنْهُمْ يَقْرَأُ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ، رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ وَمُسْلِمٌ وَاِبنُ خُزَيْمَةَ- وَفِي روايةٍ : لاَ يَجْهَرُوْنَ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ-
Meaning: ‘I have performed salat behind the Prophet (sm), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman (R). But I did not hear any one of them reading ‘ Bismillah’ loudly.
(2) Daraqutni says, إنَّهُ لَمْ يَصِحَّ فِي الْجَهْرِ بِهَا حَدِيثٌ ‘for uttering ‘Bismillah’ loudly no hadeeth has been proved Saheeh’.
(3) But as against saheeh hadeethes as many as fourteen strong and weak hadeethes have been considered by Ibnul Qaiyim (Rh) and he said, ‘The Prophet (sm) sometimes might have uttered ‘Bismillah’ loudly. But in most cases he used to read it silently. This is definite that he did not always read it loudly. If he would do that, it would not have been unknown to Sahaba-i Keram, Khulafa-i Rashideen, town dwellers and general musallis’. Then he said about the narrated hadeethesفَصَحِيْحُ تِلْكَ الْأَحَادِيْثِ غَيْرُ صَرِيْحٍ، وَصَرِيْحُهَا غَيْرُ صَحِيْحٍ ‘The saheeh hadeethes narrated about it are not clear and the clear ones are not Saheeh (authentic)’. 
5. (a) Proofs of reading sura Fatiha in Salat in all conditions ( أدلة قراءة الفاتحة في الصلاة ) :
The reading of sura Fatiha in every rak‘at of all kinds of salat for both the Imam and the Muqtadis is Farz i.e. compulsory. The main documents are as below :
(1) Narrated by Ubadah bin Sa-mit (R) the Prophet (sm) said,
لاَ صَلاَةَ لِمَنْ لَّمْ يَقْرَأْ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ، مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ- (‘La Sala-ta Liman Lam Yaqra’ bi Fa-tihatil kitab’). ‘The salat of that person is not proper who does not read sura Fatiha’.
(2) One who makes mistakes in salat (مسئ الصلاة) the Prophet (sm) in giving training to that person says, … ثُمَّ اقْرَأْ بِأُمِّ الْقُرْآنِ وَبِمَا شَآءَ اللهُ أَنْ تَقْرَأَ- Thereafter, you read the Ummul Quran i.e. sura Fatiha and then a part of the Quran you read as Allah wishes…
(3) Abu Sa‘eed Khudri (R) says,أُمِرْنَا أَنْ نَقْرَأَ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ وَمَا تَيَسَّرَ- ‘We had been ordered to read the sura Fatiha and some portion of the Quran which is seemed easier to us.
(4) Abu Huraira (R) says, أَمَرَنِيْ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ أُنَادِيَ أَنَّهُ لاَ صَلاَةَ إِلاَّ بِقِرَاءَةِ فَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ فَمَا زَادَ- ‘The Prophet (sm) ordered me to declare that the salat would not be perfect if sura Fatiha is not read, adding to some of another sura. Here it has been directed to read first sura Fatiha and then a portion of the Quran which is seemed a bit easier to him.
(5) Allah says, …وَإِذَا قُرِئَ الْقُرْآَنُ فَاسْتَمِعُوْا لَهُ وَأَنْصِتُوْا (‘Wa Eza Qurial Qura-nu Fastami‘oo Lahu wa Ansitoo’). ‘When the Quran is read, then you listen attentively to it and keep yourself silent’ (A‘raf 7/204).
According to the narration of Anas (R) the Prophet (sm) said to the musallisأَتَقْرَءُوْنَ فِيْ صَلاَتِكُمْ خَلْفَ الْإِمَامِ وَالْإِمَامُ يَقْرَأُ ؟ فَلاَ تَفْعَلُوْا وَلْيَقْرَأْ أَحَدُكُمْ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ فِيْ نَفْسِهِ، أَخْرَجَهُ ابنُ حِبَّانَ- ‘Do you read anything during recitation of the Imam? Don’t make it. But one of you should read himself sura Fatiha silently.
(6) According to the narration of Abu Huraira (R), the Prophet (sm) said, مَنْ صَلَّى صَلاَةً لَمْ يَقْرَأْ فِيْهَا بِأُمِّ الْقُرْآنِ فَهِيَ خِدَاجٌ، فَهِيَ خِدَاجٌ، فَهِيَ خِدَاجٌ غَيْرُ تَمَامٍ- ‘the person who said salat but did not read ‘the essence of the Quran’ i.e. sura Fatiha, then that salat is disabled, disabled, disabled, incomplete’. When Abu Huraira (R) the narrator, was asked, how it would be read while behind the Imam? He said, إقْرَأْ بِهَا فِيْ نَفْسِكَ (‘Iqra’ biha fee Nafsika’) ‘you read it silently’.  Besides, it is said in hadeeth above that the sura Fatiha has been divided into two parts between Allah and the slave and has been said that وَلِعَبْدِيْ مَا سَأَلَ ‘and there remains for my slave what he prays’. Imam & Muqtadi both are the slaves of Allah. So both will beg the geratest hidayat of Sirat-i-Mustaqeem (to show the right path) to Allah. The Prophet (sm) and His Sahabis have directed us to that path.
This is to note that in the hadeeth above the sura Fatiha has divided into two parts. 1st part of three verses from Alhamdu… is for the praise of Allah. 2nd part of the verses from Ihdinas … is for the prayer of the slave and the middle verse Iya-ka Na‘budu … is divided as the first for Allah and the second for the slave. Bismillah is not included in it. So it has been proved by this hadeeth that the Bismillah is not the part of sura Fatiha.
Khidaj (خِدَاجٌ) means, ‘the child who takes birth before the proper time though it is full in body’ (Al-Mu‘jamul waseett). Khattabi said, ‘The Arabs called that child as ‘Khidaj’ which was nothing but a dot of blood, which was delivered and the shape of which could not be recognized’. Abu Ubaid said, ‘Khidaj’ is the dead child of abortion, which is useless’. Therefore the salat without sura Fatiha is like the lifeless and imperfect child, which is useless.
(7) Ubadah bin Sa-mit (R) says, once we were engaged in Fajr salat in Jama-‘at behind the Prophet (sm). At that time some one among the Muqtadis read something loudly, which had made the qira-’at of the Prophet (sm) troublesome. Then after the turning of Salam He said, ‘you might have read something behind your Imam? We answered, yes. The Prophet (sm) directed,لاَ تَفْعَلُوْا إِلاَّ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ صَلاَةَ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَقْرَأْ بِهَا. ‘Don’t do this save and except sura Fatiha. Because, salat will not be proper without reading that sura.
The fact is that in the early days of Islam many people would recite the qira-’at during salat behind the Imam loudly. Some would exchange necessary talks. It used to create trouble for Imam’s qira-’at. Besides, the Kafirs (Infidels) are used to blow whistle and clap wilfully to create obstruction in the qira-’at. So through revelation of that verse (A‘raf 7/204) everybody has been ordered to keep silence during recitation of the holy Quran and to listen to it attentively. This order is applicable both within salat and outside of it in all circumstances. Therefore, by the saheeh hadeethes mentioned before narrated by Ubadah, Abu Huraira and Anas (R) have particularly instructed to read only sura Fatiha behind the Imam silently in jehri salat and no other sura to be added.
So the saheeh hadeethes narrated before have come as an explanation of the verse of the Quran (A‘raf 7/204) and not as opposition. The explanation of the Prophet (sm) was surely under the guidance of revelation, not of his own. Therefore, according to the instructions of ‘Wahi’ (revelation) reading of sura Fatiha in salat is compulsory in all circumstances.
5. (b) Proofs of oppositions and answer to them
(أدلة المخالفين للقراءة وجوابها) :
The main documents of those who opined that sura Fatiha behind the Imam should not be read in any kind of salat, Jehri or Serri (explicit or implicit) are as follows:
(1) In sura A‘raf 7/204, wherein was asked to remain silent during the qira-’at and listen to it attentively, there is no sura has been mentioned as ‘particular’. Now if the sura Fatiha is made particular by Hadeeth then it would be akin to made the Quranic verseMansookh i.e. hold over the order. While ‘the Quranic order cannot be declared Mansookh by hadeeth’. 
Answer: There is no question of ‘Mansookh’ arises here at all. Rather it has been explained in Hadeeth and the ‘Ummul Quran’ has been particularized from the Quran (Hijr 15/87). Such as, in the Quran there are general rule of distribution of Property of a deceased Muslim has been sanctioned and sermoned for all of the Ummah, but it has been particularly ordered in hadeeth that the successors of the Prophet (sm) will not get inheritance of the Prophet’s property.
Virtually, the coming of the Prophet (sm) happened as an interpreter of the Quran and that interpretation was also as per revelation of Allah. So, to deny the explanations of the Prophet (sm) would be akin to deny the ‘Wahi Ghair Matlu’ i.e. unrecited revelation of Allah.
(2) Abu Huraira (R) says, ‘one day in a ‘Jehri’ (loud) salat after turning in salam the Prophet (sm) asked if anyone of you have read the Quran with me just now? One answered with ‘yes’. The Prophet (sm) said, that is why I was thinking مَا لِيْ أُنَازِعُ الْقُرْآنَ ‘why there appears trouble in my qira-’at?’ The narrator said, فَانْتَهَى النَّاسُ عَنِ الْقِرَاءَةِ مَعَ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِيْمَا جَهَرَ فِيْهِ ‘henceforth the people refrained from reading qira-’at with the Prophet (sm) in Jehri salat. 
Answer: As per statement of the hadeeth it seems that someone read qira-’at with the Prophet (sm) loudly. For which there created disturbance in the Prophet’s qira-’at as Imam. Earlier in the narration of two hadeethes by Anas and Abu Huraira (R), instructions of reading silently has made, so that it would not create disturbance in the qira-’at of Imam. Shah Waliullah Dehlavi said, فَإنْ قَرَأَ فَلْيَقْرَءِ الْفَاتِحَةَ قِرَاءَةً لاَ يُشَوِّشُ عَلَي الإِمَامِ ‘the Muqtadi should read sura Fatiha in the way that will not create trouble to the Imam’. Therefore, if sura Fatiha is read silently behind the Imam, the question of disturbance does not arise at all.
It is to be informed that, the term, ‘therefore people refrained from the ‘qira-’at’ which is narrated at the end of the hadeeth, is Mudraj (مُدْرَجٌ), which has been appended by Ibnu Shihab Zuhri, one of the narrators within the chain of narrators. Sufian bin ‘Uyainah the disciple says that Zuhri says (about it) which I have never heard. 
(3) Narrated from Abu Huraira (R) the Prophet (sm) said إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ الْإِمَامُ لِيُؤْتَمَّ بِهِ فَإِذَا كَبَّرَ فَكَبِّرُوْا وَإِذَا قَرَأَ فَأَنْصِتُوْا ‘Imam is appointed to follow him. When he utters takbeer, you also say takbeer, and when he recites the Quran you remain silent’. 
Answer: In above hadeeth it is directed to keep silent in the time of qira-’at as ‘general’ (عام). Same direction is in the Quran (A‘raf 7/204) also. In the narration of same Ravi (Abu Huraira) which is narrated before and in the hadeeth narrated by Anas (R), there is direction to read sura Fatiha silently as ‘Particular’ (خاص). So it would be possible to follow both saheeh hadeethes if sura Fatiha is to be read silently behind the Imam.
(4) Narrated by Jabir (R) the Prophet (sm) says, مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ إِمَامٌ فَقِرَاءَةُ الْإِمَامِ لَهُ قِرَاءَةٌ ‘one who has Imam, the qira-’at of Imam will be his qira-’at.
Answer : (a) Ibnu Hajar Asqalani says, the sources from which the hadeeth has been narrated, all are faulty. For that reason, the hadeeth isza‘eef i.e. unauthentic to all the scholars unanimously (إِنَهُ ضَعِيْفٌ عِنْدَ جَمِيْعِ الْحُفَّاظِ). 
(b) In that hadeeth, the term Qira-’at is ‘general’ (عام). But the instruction of reading sura Fatiha is ‘particular’ (خاص). Therefore, leaving aside all other suras, only sura Fatiha is to be read.
(5) لاَ صَلاَةَ إِلاَّ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ (La Sala-ta illa bi Fa-tihatil Kita-b). ‘There is no salat without sura Fatiha’  means ‘the salat is not complete’ (لاَ صَلاَةَ بِالْكَمَالِ). As in other hadeeth it is said, لاَ إِيْمَانَ لِمَنْ لاَ أَمَانَةَ لَهُ، وَلاَ دِيْنَ لِمَنْ لاَ عَهْدَ لَهُ- ‘that person has no Iman (faith), who has no Amanat (trust), and that person has no Deen (religion), who has not kept the promise. It means the faith of that person is not complete but defective.
Answer: (a) The famous hadeeth narrated above in almost all books of hadeeth including Kutub-i-Sittah, has been narrated with Saheeh Sanad by same narrator Ubadah bin Samit (R) in Daraqutni as:لاَ تُجْزِئُ صَلاَةٌ لاَ يَقْرَأُ الرَّجُلُ فِيْهَا بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ- ‘the salat is not perfect in which the Musalli do not read sura Fatiha’. Therefore in that hadeeth, لاَ صَلاَةَ ‘No salat’ means ‘Salat is not perfect’.
(b) Similarly in explaining ‘Khidaj’ i.e. disabled, Hafez Ibnu Khuzaimah in his ‘Saheeh’ has wrote a long paragraph 95 as follows,
بَابُ ذِكْرِ الدَّلِيلِ عَلَى أَنَّ الْخِدَاجَ الَّذِي أَعْلَمَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي هَذَا الْخَبَرِ هُوَ النَّقْصُ الَّذِي لاَ تُجْزِئُ الصَّلاَةُ مَعَهُ ، إِذِ النَّقْصُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ يَكُوْنُ نَقْصَيْنِ ، أَحَدُهُمَا لاَ تُجْزِئُ الصَّلاَةُ مَعَ ذَلِكَ النَّقْصِ، وَالآخَرُ تَكُوْنُ الصَّلاَةُ جَائِزَةً مَعَ ذَلِكَ النَّقْصِ لاَ يَجِبُ إِعَادَتُهَا ، وَلَيْسَ هَذَا النَّقْصُ مِمَّا يُوجِبُ سَجْدَتَيِ السَّهْوِ مَعَ جَوَازِ الصَّلاَةِ- (صحيح ابن خزيمة)-
‘Discussion of khidaj of which the Prophet (sm) has warned with caution if that defect is there, the salat will not be perfect’. Because the defects are of two kinds: (1) The presence of which makes a salat insufficient. (2) The presence of which makes a salat proper and it has not to be said again. For this fault sijda-i-saho is not to be done. Yet, the salat becomes effective’. Then he quoted the Hadeeth of the Prophet (sm) narrated by Abu Huraira (R) as, لاَ تُجْزِئُ صَلاَةٌ لاَ يَقْرَأُ الرَّجُلُ فِيْهَا بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ-. ‘that salat is not perfect in which sura Fatiha is not read…’ 
Now, as the the Prophet (sm) Himself has explained the meaning of ‘La Salata’ i.e. ‘No salat’ as ‘La Tujzhiu’ i.e. ‘Salat will not be perfect’, then we have no scope to give our own explanation. Therefore, it is wrong to make the meaning ‘Khidaj’ as ‘incomplete’. But it is ‘defective’ and defective salat is not a salat in actual meaning.
Therefore, showing respect to the saheeh hadeethes, most of the Sahabis and Tabe‘iis and Imam Malik, Shafe‘ii, Ahmad and the decisions of most of the Mujtahid Imams and their regular practices, the reading of sura Fatiha is compulsory in every salat in every time. Otherwise, in consequence of unnecessary ego or worship of persons or parties by performing salat throughout the life, one will get nothing but deep sigh in the Day of Resurrection. As Allah says, ‘In the day, the person followed, will cut off relations with their followers and all will observe the punishment and all their relations will be cut off’. The day when the followers will say, ‘If we could return once again, we shall cut off our relations with them as they have cut off relations with us today. In this way Allah shows their all deeds as a matter of repentance. But they will never come out of the Hell’ (Baqarah 2/166-67).
5. (c) Not to get Rak‘at by getting Ruku only
(لا يدرك الركعة بإدراك الركوع فقط) :
The rak‘at will not be counted by getting ruku only without the Qiam and Qira-’at of sura Fatiha. Rather he will have to add another rak‘at with it. But the opinion of Jamhoor i.e. the most of the scholars is that, ‘If you get ruku, you get the rak‘at, either he reads sura Fatiha or not’. Their main documents are as follows:
(1) Abu Huraira (R) narrated that the Prophet (sm) says,
مَنْ أَدْرَكَ رَكْعَةً مِّنَ الصَّلاَةِ مَعَ الْإِمَامِ فَقَدْ أَدْرَكَ الصَّلاَةَ كُلَّهَا – ‘the person who gets one rak‘at of salat with Imam, that person gets the salat fully’.
Answer: Jamhoor scholars have made the meaning of rak‘at here as ruku. Imam Bukhari says that here the rak‘at has been said and not the ruku, sijdah or tashahhud (which are all together form a rak‘at. (See ‘Awnul Ma‘bood 3/152). Shamsul Haq Azeemabadi says, ‘here without any reason, rak‘at has been meant as ruku, which is not proper. As in the hadeeth narrated by Bara bin Azeb (R) in saheeh Muslim in which rak‘at appeared in place of Qawmah and Sijdah. Thererak‘at has been meant as ruku. Abdur Rahman Sa‘di also said the same. (Al-Mukhtarat P.44).
(2) Narrated from Abu Huraira (R), the Prophet (sm) says, the person who gets the ruku of last rak‘at in Jum‘ah prayer he will add another rak‘at with it. But the person who fails to get ruku of the last rak‘at, will say four rak‘ats of Zuhr. 
Answer: This hadeeth narrated by Daraqutni is Za‘eef.
(3) A hadeeth has been quoted from Abu Bakrah (R) that he alone once entered the row of musallis from the back side in bending position ofruku, then the Prophet (sm) told him, ‘may Allah increase your love, but never do it in future’. 
Answer : Ibnu Hazm Andalusi and Imam Shawkani said, there is no document in favour of the opinion of Jamhoor in this hadeeth. As because, the Prophet (sm) asked him not to say the rak‘at further, nor it has been narrated whether the Sahabi counted that rak‘at or not. 
Other scholars have opposed the opinion of Jamhoor and said that, to get ruku only will not be sufficient to get full rak‘at. Because the reading of sura Fatiha is compulsory. If it is avoided, the salat will be null and void and it has to be said anew.  As the qiam, ruku & sijdah etc. are compulsory; so that the omission of any one of these will make the salat set aside and has to be said anew.
Now a person who gets ruku only, he gives up two Farz of Qiam and reading of sura Fatiha. Therefore, that rak‘at will not to be counted. Rather he will have to add one rak‘at more with it. Of course, he will get virtues of joining the salat in full. The documents of them are as follows:
(1) Narrated by Abu Huraira (R), the Prophet (sm) says, فَمَا أَدْرَكْتُمْ فَصَلُّوْا وَمَا فَاتَكُمْ فَأَتِمُّوْا- ‘Don’t run up on hearing the Iqamat, but you walk normally. To keep calmness is essential for you. Then you perform the portion of salat in jama-‘at and fulfil the rest which you have missed. Imam Bukhari says, here the person gets only the ruku but fails to attend two Farz of qiam and qira-’at-i-Fatiha. So he will have to complete the rest with qiam and reading of sura Fatiha by adding a rak‘at at the end.
(2) A Mauqoof hadeeth has been narrated by Abu Huraira (R) that لاَ يُجْزِئُكَ إِلاَّ أَنْ تُدْرِكَ الْإِمَامَ قَائِمًا ‘It will not be sufficient for you If you do not get the Imam in standing position. Hafez Ibnu Hajar Asqalani says, ‘It is famous from Abu Huraira (R) not to get rak‘at by getting ruku only.
(3) Tabe‘ii scholar Mujahid says, ‘there would not have been count the rak‘at in which one would forget to read sura Fatiha (لاَ تُعَدُّ تِلْكَ الرَّكْعَةُ)’.
Ibnu Hazm says, ‘To complete the rak‘at it is compulsory to get qiam and qira-’at. He told with firmness that there was no difference between missing rak‘at and other rukans i.e. the pillars of salat. As a result, the rukan that has been missed at the time of joining the salat with Imam has to be performed later; similarly if sura Fatiha is missed it has to be read anew. As because, this is also one of the rukans which is Farz (compulsory) to perform. Now if it is claimed that ‘the salat will be proper inspite of sura Fatiha is missed’, then it would require clear and pure documents. But that is not available. He said that some people in advance claimed Ijma‘ i.e. consensus of opinion among the scholars over the matter. That person is a liar in that matter. As because, it has been narrated from Abu Huraira (R) that he would not count that rak‘at if he fails to read sura Fatiha’. It has also been narrated from Zaid bin Wahab.
Imam Shawkani says, both for Imam and Muqtadi the reading of sura Fatiha in all circumstances, in every rak‘at is Farz. Rather, it is one of the conditions for the perfection of salat. So, the person who assumes that the salat may be perfect without it, he will have to place such clear document that can make the earlier narrated negative ‘Aam (general) documents into Khas (particular). 
Conclusion: It is seemed by the above discussion that the musalli will not count the rak‘at in which he could not read sura Fatiha. But he will add another rak‘at with it. It could be said that when there is no clear document about to get rak‘at by gething ruku and when there is clear statement is made by the Sahabis & Tabe‘iis about to add another rak‘at, so there is no proper reason to seek the verdict of another. Besides these, excluding Imam Bukhari, Imam Ibnu Hazm, Imam Shawkani and other like-minded scholars, the claim of the verdict of Jamhoor is also a questionable matter.
Manners of Qira- ’ at (آداب القراءة) :
(1) It is sunnat to make pause (waqf) after the end of each verse of sura Fatiha. Similarly, there is the order of reading qira-’at in normal fine tune. But it should not be read in the singing tune. No Takalluf i.e. pretension is allowed. Rather it is liked by theShari‘ah that the Quran should be recited in normal sweet voice. At the beginning of the qira-’at a smaller cessation i.e.‘Sakta’ is sunnat for reading ‘Sana’ (Doa-i-Istiftah). Theqira-’at for 1strak‘at should be a bit longer. Similarly makingqira-’at from the first portion of the Quran to the last portion is good. But there is no harm if it is not consecutive. Even the same sura may be read in two rak‘ats successively.
(2) In ‘Jehri’ salat if Imam, he will have to read any other sura after sura Fatiha, and if Muqtadi, he will read nothing after reading sura Fatiha but will listen to the qira-’at of the Imam most attentively. For Zuhr and ‘Asr salat, both Imam and Muqtadi will read sura Fatiha and another sura with it and in the 3rd and 4thrak‘at will read only sura Fatiha. As it is narrated by Abu Qatadah (R):
كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقْرَأُ فِي الظُّهْرِ فِي الأُوَلَيَيْنِ بِأُمِّ الْكِتَابِ وَسُوْرَتَيْنِ وَفِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ الْأُخْرَيَيْنِ بِأُمِّ الْكِتَابِ.. وَهَكَذَا فِي الْعَصْرِ-
‘In first two rak‘ats of Zuhr salat the Prophet (sm) used to read sura Fatiha and two other suras, but in the next two rak‘ats he used to read only sura Fatiha, … and similarly in the ‘Asr…  It is known that some Sahabis used to add suras even in the last two rak‘ats also.
(3) The Prophet (sm) used to make the qira-’at lengthy and short due to the time & circumstances. (a) In Fajr salat he would make the qira-’at lengthy most of the time and recite among the suras of ‘long detail’ (طوال المفصَّل) from Qaf to Mursalat, sometimes among the suras of ‘medium detail’ (أوساط المفصَّل) from ‘Naba’ to ‘Layl’ and sometimes among the suras of ‘short detail’ (قصار المفصَّل) from ‘Zuha’ to ‘Nass’. (b) he would make the qira-’at lengthy in first two rak‘ats of Zuhr & ‘Asr and shorten the last two. He would recite inMaghrib from the suras of ‘short detail’, and in salat of Esha from the suras of ‘medium detail’ and in thesalat of Fajr from the suras of ‘long detail’. Sometime would make opposite of it. (c) He would recite sometimes two suras and more in the same rak‘at (d) Sometimes recites same sura in two rak‘ats successively (e) He recites sometimes sura Kaferoon & Ikhlas and Falaq & Nass in two rak‘ats of Fajr salat (f) He makes Hisqira-’at lengthy in 1strak‘at than other, but occured exception sometimes. (g) He praises one who recites sura Ikhlas in salat before his qira-’ats. (h) He prohibits to finish the recitation of the Quran before three days. He says, less than it, he could not understand anything (i) His rak‘at , qira-’at and sijdah would be lessen always from the first to the last.
6. Ameen in loud voice (آمين بالجهر)
After reciting sura Fatiha in ‘Jehri’ (loud) salat, both the Imam and Muqtadis will utter ‘Ameen’ loudly. Not before the Imam, but with the Imam’s utterance of ‘Ameen’ is better for Muqtadis to utter. In that case it is possible for the Muqtadis to complete sura Fatiha following the Imam and then Imam, Muqtadis and the Angels will jointly utter ‘Ameen’. It has been directed by the Prophet (sm) as:
عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا أَمَّنَ الْإِمَامُ فَأَمِّنُوْا… وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ: إِذَا قَالَ الْإِمَامُ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوْبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّآلِّيْنَ فَقُوْلُوْا آمِيْنَ، فَإِنَّ الْمَلآئِكَةَ تَقُوْلُ آمِيْنَ وَإِنَّ الْإِمَامَ يَقُوْلُ آمِيْنَ، فَمَنْ وَافَقَ تَأْمِيْنُهُ تَأْمِيْنَ الْمَلآئِكَةِ غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ رواه الجماعةُ وأحمدُ- وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ عنه: قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: إِذَا قَالَ أَحَدُكُمْ آمِيْنَ وَقَالَتِ الْمَلآئِكَةُ فِي السَّمَاءِ آمِيْنَ فَوَافَقَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَى، غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ. رواه الشيخانُ ومالكُ- وعن وَائِلِ بْنِ حُجْرٍ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَرَأَ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوْبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّآلِّيْنَ فَقَالَ آمِيْنَ وَمَدَّ بِهَا صَوْتَهُ، رواه أبو داؤدَ والترمذيُّ وابنُ ماجه-
The essence of above hadeethes narrated in the books of hadeeth including Kutub-i-Sittah is that, the Prophet (sm) makes order as, ‘you say ‘Ameen’ when the Imam says ‘Ameen’ or says, ‘Walazzoa-lleen’. Because the ‘Ameen’ of whom will meet the ‘Ameen’ of the angels in the heaven, all of his sins committed earlier will be pardoned. Wayel bin Hujr (R) says, I have heard the Prophet (sm) to say ‘Ameen’ in loud voice after saying‘Ghairil Maghzoobe ‘Alaihim Walazzoa-lleen’. From Abu Huraira (R) also same sort of narration has come. 
‘Ameen’ means اَللَّهُمَّ اسْتَجِبْ ‘Oh Allah! accept it’. Reading ‘Ameen’ (آمين) with the ‘Madd’ over Alif (آ) or ‘upright zabar’ (اٰ) both are permissible. Nafe‘ says that Abdullah Ibnu Umar (R) would never leave to say‘Ameen’ and he always encourage others to say it. ‘Ata says, Abdullah bin Zubair used to say ‘Ameen’ loudly and with him the sound of muqtadis would make the mosque resounded (حَتَّى إِنَّ لِلْمَسْجِدِ لَلَجَّةً).
Now if any Imam does not say ‘Ameen’ or he says it silently, even then the muqtadis will say ‘Ameen’ loudly.  In the same way if anybody joins the Jama-‘at just at the time of saying ‘Ameen’ he would first say ‘Ameen’ loudly and then will read sura Fatiha silently. In this time the Imam will make pause for sometime before beginning the next sura. By which the difference between sura Fatiha and the next Ameen and Qira-’at be supposed. This is to note that there is no document to keep silent of the Imam to read sura Fatiha by the Muqtadis at that time of Sakta.  Nobody should be angry on hearing the sound of ‘Ameen’. As because the Prophet (sm) said,
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: مَا حَسَدَتْكُمُ الْيَهُوْدُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ مَا حَسَدَتْكُمْ عَلَى السَّلاَمِ وَالتَّأْمِيْنِ، رواه أحمد وإبن ماجه والطبراني- وفي رواية عنها بلفظ: مَا حَسَدَتْكُمُ الْيَهُوْدُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ مَا حَسَدَتْكُمْ عَلَى قَوْلِ آمِيْنَ-
‘The Jews are most envious to you for your Salam and Ameen. Because the Angels also would say ‘Ameen’ with them. Then it would be accepted to Allah.
This is to know that in favour of saying Ameen 17 hadeethes have been narrated. Of which one for saying Ameen in low voice has come from Shu‘ba narrated by Ahmad and Daraqutni and that is: خَفَضَ أَوْ أَخْفَي بِهَا صَوْتَه The meaning of which is that, at the time of saying ‘Ameen’, the Prophet’s voice would have been low’. The same statement comes from Sufyan Thawri (Rh) as, رَفَعَ بِهَا صَوْتَهُ ‘His voice would have been loud’. To the scholars of hadeeth, the hadeeth of saying ‘Ameen’ in low voice narrated from Shu‘ba is ‘Muztarib’ (مضطرب), which means Za‘eef for being wrong in names and words in Sanad (chain of narrators) and Matan (text). On the other hand, the hadeeth of saying ‘Ameen’ loudly narrated by Sufyan Thawri for having no such defects is ‘Saheeh’. Therefore it is the duty of an impartial Mumin to follow the pure Sunnah narrated in saheeh Bukhari and Muslim for saying ‘Ameen’ in loud voice in Jehri salat. Moreover, it is incongruous with the Muqtadis to response silently, while the Imam asking loudly to Allah for showing them ‘ Siratul Mustaqeem’ i.e. the right path.
7. Ruku (الركوع)
‘Ruku’ means ‘bending’ (الإنحناء). Terminological meaning is to bend the head before Allah with the rule of shari‘ah. After the qira-’at in devotional submission before the great Lord Allah one has to bend his head and back for ‘ruku’. At the time of going to the ruku with takbeer saying ‘Alla-hu Akbar’ will raise both hands straight up to the shoulder level. Then keeping fingers of both hands open and pressing the palms on two knees, will make the ruku. At the time of ruku the back and the head will be straight and parallel. The elbows and the knees will be straight also. Then keeping the eyes fixed along with the place of prostration  and declaring the greatness of Allah, the creator, and asking forgiveness for ownself will have to recite Doas of ruku.
There are several Doas for ruku and sijdah. Of which for ruku سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيْمِ ‘Subha-na Rabbial ‘ Azeem’ (Most holiest is my fosterer who is the glorious), and for sijdah سُبْحَانَ رَبِّىَ الْأَعْلَى ‘Subh-ana Rabbial A‘la’ (Most holiest is my fosterer who is the highest) which are most popular. These two Doas are to be read three times. There is no limit for more. The hadeeth about reading ten times isza‘eef. But during last stage of life, the Prophet (sm) used to read in ruku & sijdah even in out of salat most of the time the following Doa:
سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا وَبِحَمْدِكَ، اَللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِيْ-
Subha – nakalla – humma Rabbana wa Bihamdika Alla – hummaghfirlee’ (Oh Allah! Oh our fosterer! we declare your Holiness with your praises. Oh Allah! pardon me).
Besides, the other Doas of ‘ruku’ which can be read at a time or differently in different times as follows :
1- سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيْمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ- ثَلاَثًا- (أبو داؤد و غيره)-
2- سُبُّوْحٌ قُدُّوْسٌ رَبُّ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ وَالرُّوْحِ- (مسلم و غيره)-
3- اَللَّهُمَّ لَكَ رَكَعْتُ، وَبِكَ آمَنْتُ، وَلَكَ أَسْلَمْتُ، خَشَعَ لَكَ سَمْعِيْ وَبَصَرِيْ وَمُخِّيْ وَعَظْمِيْ وَعَصَبِيْ- (مسلم و غيره)-
4- اَللَّهُمَّ لَكَ رَكَعْتُ وَبِكَ أَسْلَمْتُ وَعَلَيْكَ تَوَكَّلْتُ، اَنْتَ رَبِّى خَشَعَ سَمْعِىْ وَبَصَرِىْ وَدَمِىْ وَلَحْمِىْ وَعَظْمِىْ وَعَصَبِىْ للهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ- (نسائى)-
5- سُبْحَانَ ذِي الْجَبَرُوْتِ وَالْمَلَكُوْتِ وَالْكِبْرِيَاءِ وَالْعَظْمَةِ- وهذا قاله النبى r فى صلاة الليل- (أبو داؤد والنسائى) صفة صلاة النبى r للألبانى صـ113-114-
8. Qawmah (القومة)
To stand restfully after ‘ruku’ is called ‘Qawmah’. At this position hands should be raised up to the shoulder and both Imam and Muqtadis will say سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ Sami‘alla-hu liman Hamidah’ (Allah listens to him who praises him). Then will say رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ (Rabbana wa lakal Hamd) orرَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ (Rabbana lakal Hamd) or اَللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ Alla-humma Rabbana lakal Hamd’ (Oh Allah! Oh my Lord! all praises for you). The Prophet (sm) says, the words of whom will be similar to that of the words of angels, his all vices of the past will be pardoned. Or will say,
رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ حَمْدًا كَثِيْرًا طَيِّبًا مُّبَارَكًا فِيْهِ Rabbana wa lakal Hamdu, Hamdan katheeran Tayebam Muba-rakan feeh’ (Oh our fosterer! countless praises are for you, which are holy and bounteous). Explaining the merits of this Doa the Prophet (sm) says, ‘there comes to my notice that more than 30 angels are to make competition to who will write first the virtues of that person who reads this Doa. 
Another Doas of Qawmah:
1- رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ حَمْدًا كَثِيْرًا طَيِّبًا مُّبَارَكًا فِيْهِ كَمَا يُحِبُّ رَبُّنَا وَيَرْضَى-
(مالك والبخاري وابوداؤد)-
2- اَللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ مِلْءَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمِلْءَ الْأَرْضِ وَمِلْءَ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ
شَيْءٍ بَعْدُ- (مسلم، صفة صلاة النبى r117-119)-
This is note that the hadeeth about to say in this time the Doa as, ‘Ya Rabbi lakal Hamdu kama yambagi lijala-li wajhika wa li ‘Azeemi Sultoa-nika’ is Za‘eef. 
At this time, the musalli should stand for long as long time of ruku and read the Doa. Because during qawmah unless themusalli stands restfully or after rising from sijdah sits restfully, the salat will not be perfect. 
The Prophet (sm) said,
لاَ تُجْزِئُ صَلاَةُ الرَّجُلِ حَتَّى يُقِيْمَ ظَهْرَهُ فِي الرُّكُوْعِ وَالسُّجُوْدِ- ‘The salat of that person will not be perfect who does not keep his back straight in Ruku and Sijdah.
Note: During Qawmah, some people keep their hands up-ward for sometime, and someones set these once again on the chest. That is not proper. The saheeh hadeethes about it are as follows:
(1) The famous Sahabi Abu Humaid Sa-‘edi (R) who showed the salat of Rasool (sm) as example before ten Sahabis and was attested by them, wherein it is said,
فَإِذَا رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ اسْتَوَى حَتَّى يَعُوْدَ كُلُّ فَقَارٍ مَكَانَهُ رواه البخاريُّ-
‘When he raised his head from ruku, stood straight in such a way that the spinal bones are properly set in their respective places’. 
(2) In the famous hadeeth of the person who commits mistakes in his salat (مسيئ الصلاة), corrected and was given practical training of salat by the Prophet (sm), wherein it is said,حَتَّى تَرْجِعَ العِظَامُ إِلَى مَفَاصِلِهَا ‘until or unless the bones are set in their proper joints’.
On the basis of ‘general’ (عام) hadeethes of placing right hand on the left which is narrated by Wayel bin Hujr and Sahl bin Sa‘d, it is said that, placing hands on the chest should be at the time of qiam before ruku and after it. But the Present hadeethes have narrated ‘particularly’ for the qawmah after ruku. Moreover, placing hands on the chest is against the normal position of hands. So, during qawmah if all the bones of the body, including the spinal bones are to come to natural position, the hands are must to be set free and it is seemed to be the proper following of saheeh hadeethes of the Prophet (sm).
9. Raf‘ul Yadayn (رفع اليدين)
It means, raising two hands up. It is one of the signs of surrender to Allah. At the time of Qawmah after ruku, Raf‘ul Yadayn is to perform with raising two hands normally upto the shoulder or ear level facing the Qibla in the salat of three or four rak‘ats in four places: (1) at the time of takbeer-i-tahreemah (2) on going to the ruku (3) raising from the ruku with standing in straight position and (4) in 3rdrak‘at at the time of setting hands on the chest after rising to stand from the 1st sitting. Thus would make Raf‘ul Yadayn at the time of standing after every sitting of Tashahhud.
Including four Caliphs as many as twenty five Sahabis narrated the hadeethes of Raf‘ul Yadayn at the time of going to the ruku and rising from it. According to one account the number of Ravis (narrators) for the hadeeth of Raf‘ul Yadayn including ‘Ashara-i-Mubashsharah’ is 50 (fifty) from the Sahabis  and the total number of saheeh hadeethes and Athars is not less than 400 (four hundred). Imam Syutee (Rh), Sheikh Albani and other scholars consider the hadeeth ofRaf‘ul Yadayn as of the category of ‘Mutawatir’ (i. e. narrated extensively & incessantly). 
Imam Bukhari (Rh) says,
لَمْ يَثْبُتْ عَنْ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ تَرْكُهُ، وَقَالَ: لاَ أَسَانِيْدَ أَصَحُّ مِنْ أَسَانِيْدِ الرَّفْعِ-
‘There is no proof that any Sahabi has left Raf‘ul Yadayn. He also says, there is no more authentic sanad than the sanads of the hadeethes of Raf‘ul Yadayn’. Few of the famous hadeethes on Raf‘ul Yadayn are as follows:
(1) Abdullah bin Umar (R) says,
أَنَّ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَرْفَعُ يَدَيْهِ حَذْوَ مَنْكَبَيْهِ إِذَا افْتَتَحَ الصَّلاَةَ وَإِذَا كَبَّرَ لِلرُّكُوْعِ وَإِذَا رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ مِنَ الرُّكُوْعِ… مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ، وفي رِوَايَةٍ عَنْهُ: وَ إِذَا قَامَ مِنَ الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ رَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ…. رواه البخاريُّ-
‘The Prophet (sm) used to do Raf‘ul Yadayn at the beginning of salat, at going to the ruku, at rising from the ruku… and at the time of standing from the 2ndrak‘at.
This hadeeth has been narrated extendedly in Baihaqi as فَمَا زَالَتْ تِلْكَ صَلاَتُهُ حَتَّي لَقِيَ اللهَ تَعَالَي- ‘His salat was in practice in this way, till he met Allah’. That is he performed salat with Raf‘ul Yadayn till his death. Ali Ibnul Madini, the teacher of Imam Bukhari says, this hadeeth in my opinion is like a ‘document on the Ummah’ (حُجَّةٌ عَلَي الْخَلْقِ). Whoever will hear it, it will be mandatory for him to do it’. Hasan Basri and Hameed bin Helal say, ‘all the Sahabis used to do Raf‘ul Yadayn in that three places. 
(2) Malik ibnul Huairith (R) says,
أَنَّ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ إِذَا كَبَّرَ رَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ حَتَّى يُحَاذِيَ بِهِمَا أُذُنَيْهِ وَإِذَا رَكَعَ رَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ حَتَّى يُحَاذِيَ بِهِمَا أُذُنَيْهِ وَإِذَا رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ مِنَ الرُّكُوْعِ فَقَالَ سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ، فَعَلَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ، رواه مسلمٌ-
‘The Prophet (sm) when gives ‘takbeer-i-tahreemah’ for salat, he would raise his two hands up to his ears. And at the time of going to the ruku and rising from the ruku he used to do the same and would say ‘Sami‘alla-hu liman hamidah’. 
This is to note that against hundreds of saheeh hadeethes, in favour of not performing Raf‘ul Yadayn in other times than ‘ takbeer-i-tahreemah’ which there are mainly four hadeethes, all are Za‘eef.
Among those the hadeeth narrated by Abdullah bin Mas‘ood (R) is most famous. As Alqamah says that once Ibnu Mas‘ood told us,
أَلاَ أُصَلِّيْ بِكُمْ صَلاَةَ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟ فَصَلَّى وَلَمْ يَرْفَعْ يَدَيْهِ إِلاَّ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً مَعَ تَكْبِيْرَةِ الْإِفْتِتَاحِ، رواه الترمذىُّ وابوداؤدَ- ‘Should I perform before you the salat of the Prophet (sm)? Then he performedsalat and did not make Raf‘ul Yadayn except one time in ‘takbeer-i-tahreemah’. 
Ibnu Hibban on that very hadeeth comments as below:
هَذَا أَحْسَنُ خَبَرٍ رَوَى أَهْلُ الْكُوْفَةِ فِيْ نَفْيِ رَفْعِ الْيَدَيْنِ فِي الصَّلاَةِ عِنْدَ الرُّكُوْعِ وَعِنْدَ الرَّفْعِ مِنْهُ، وَهُوَ فِي الْحَقِيْقَةِ أَضْعَفُ شَيْءٍ يُعَوَّلُ عَلَيْهِ، لِأَنَّ لَهُ عِلَلاً تُبْطِلُهُ- ‘Though it is the greatest document of the Kufans on which has been laid dependence for not performing Raf‘ul Yadayn, yet this is the weakest document of all. As because, there are such matters in it, which make it to regard it as void.
Sheikh Albani said, if this hadeeth is taken as authentic one, yet it cannot be placed against saheeh hadeethes of Raf‘ul Yadayn. Because, لأنه نافٍ وتلك مُثْبِتَةٌ ومن المقرَّر في علم الأصول أن المثبتَ مقدمٌ علي النافي- ‘this is negative and those are affirmative. As per basic rules of Ilm-i-Hadeeth, the affirmative hadeeth is preferable than negative ones. 
Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavi said, وَالَّذِيْ يَرْفَعُ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّنْ لاَ يَرْفَعُ ، فَإِنَّ أَحَادِيْثَ الرَّفْعِ أَكْثَرُ وَأَثْبَتُ- ‘The musalli who does Raf‘ul Yadayn is more favourite to me than that musalli who does not perform it. Because the number of hadeethes in favor of Raf‘ul Yadayn is more and stronger.
Merits of Raf‘ul Yadayn (فضل رفع اليدين ) :
Raf‘ul Yadayn is one the signs of surrender to Allah. Abdullah bin Umar (R) says, Raf‘ul Yadayn is the beauty of salat (رفع اليدين من زينة الصلاة). Anybody who would not do Raf‘ul Yadayn in ruku and on rising from it, he would beat him throwing small pebbles. ‘Uqba bin ‘A-mer (R) says, ‘In every Raf‘ul Yadayn there are 10 (ten) virtues.  If some one with the love of Sunnah of the Prophet (sm) does one virtuous deed, Allah says ‘I increase his virtues from 10 to 700 times’. Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavi says,Raf‘ul Yadayn is فعل تعظيمي ‘a deed of honour’, which makes the musalli careful to be attentive towards Allah and to become absorbed in salat.
The Prophet (sm) did not make Raf‘ul Yadayn on rising from sijdah (prostration). Ibnul Qayim says, it has also been proved by most of the narratives of Imam Ahmad that he was not supporter of Raf‘ul Yadayn duringsijdah. The hadeeth that Sheikh Albani has narrated  that the prophet (sm) sometimes would make Raf‘ul Yadayn at sijdah, that does not mean Raf‘ul Yadayn like that of ruku. But it seems that it was general raising of hands while rising from sijdah. Imam Ahmad said that, the Prophet (sm) would not make Raf‘ul Yadayn between two sijdahs.
Manners of Ruku & Sijdah (آداب الركوع والسجود)
Bara’ bin Azeb (R) says, the duration of ruku, sijdah, sitting between two sijdahs and qawmah of the Prophet (sm) would have been almost the same.
Anas (R) says, this would have been so lengthy that some people thought that the Prophet (sm) might have forgotten about salat. 
10. Sijdah (السجدة)
‘ Sijdah’ means to lie appearance on the earth(وضع الجبهة على الأرض). Terminological meaning is to lay appearance on the earth with full of humbleness in prayer to Allah. Rising from the ruku after completion of the Doa of Qawmah the musalli will have to fall intosijdah before Allah saying ‘Alla-hu Akbar’ and will read the Doas of sijdah as described before in the chapter of Ruku. Placing forehead alongwith the nose, two hands, two knees and the toes of both feet on the earth in all seven limbs will touch the ground in sijdah.
At the time of going to sijdah two hands will have to be placed first on the ground. Because the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurairah (R) about it وَلْيَضَعْ يَدَيْهِ قَبْلَ رُكْبَتَيْهِ is Saheeh. But the hadeeth narrated by Wayel bin Hujr (R) for placing knees first is Za‘eef. At the time of sijdah, the two hands are to be placed normally on the ground towardsqibla on both sides of the head along the shoulder or ears and the elbows and armpit to be kept open. He should not be reclined on knees or on the ground. In sijdah two elbows should be up and it should never be spreaded on the earth as a dog. 
The sijdah will be such straight that a kid may pass beneath the chest. In easy measurement, it would be proper if the musalli prostrates at a distance of one and a half cubit of his own hand from his knees. On rising fromsijdah one will sit on the left foot and the right foot to be kept straight and the toes to the qibla. 
Then after completion of the Doa of sitting, one will go to the second sijdah with takbeer. Most of the women at the time ofsijdah keep their buttocks on the ground. The hadeeth to this effect, narrated in ‘Maraseel-i-Abu Daud’ is too much Za‘eef.  For this the Sunnati system of sijdah would be lost. Sijdah is one of the principal rukans (pillars) of salat. If sijdah is spoiled then there is every possibility of spoiling the salat. Therefore, this bad habit is to be shunned at once.
Sijdah is the best time for acceptance of Doa. As the Prophet (sm) said in the hadeeth narrated by Abu Hurairah (R),
أَقْرَبُ مَا يَكُوْنُ الْعَبْدُ مِنْ رَّبِّهِ وَهُوَ سَاجِدٌ فَأَكْثِرُوا الدُّعَاءَ رواه مسلمٌ وفي رِوايةٍ له عن ابن عباسٍ قال: فَاجْتَهِدُوْا فِي الدُّعَاءِ فَقَمِنٌ أَنْ يُّسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ- ‘when he is in sijdah, the slave reaches very nearer to his Lord (Allah). Therefore, you pray more at that time’. In another statement it is said, ‘You put your utmost effort in prayer. It is hoped that your Doa will be accepted. 
At least three times, the Doa of Ruku and Sijdah is to be read. The hadeeth for reading ten times, is Za‘eef.
In between two sijdahs, during short sitting, the fingers will be spreaded over the knee-tops towards Qibla.  In this time one will have to read the following Doa:
Doa of sitting between two Sijdas : (الدعاء بين السجدتين) :
(See : P. 18)
Or will say twice in minimum, رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِيْ ‘Rabbighfirlee’. ‘Oh my Lord! Forgive me’.  Thereafter, will go to the second sijdah and will read Doa.
Jalsa-i- Istira-hat (جلسة الإستراحة) :
At the second and fourth rak‘at after rising from sijdah before standing, sitting restfully for some time is sunnat. This is called as ‘Jalsa-i-Istira-hat’ or sitting at ease. As it has been stated in the hadeeth below:
عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ الْحُوَيْرِثِ أَنَّهُ رَأَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُصَلِّيْ فَإِذَا كَانَ فِيْ وِتْرٍ مِّنْ صَلاَتِهِ لَمْ يَنْهَضْ حَتَّى يَسْتَوِيَ قَاعِدًا، رواه البخارىُّ-
Meaning: ‘when the Prophet (sm) would reach the uneven rak‘at then he would not stand up until and unless he would sit restfully’. 
In another statement of the same narrator, it is said that,
وَإِذَا رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ عَنِ السَّجْدَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ جَلَسَ وَاعْتَمَدَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ قَامَ ‘When the Prophet (sm) would raise his head from the second sijdah, then he would sit and support himself on the ground (with two hands) and then he would stand. 
‘Without support himself on the ground by hands, he would stand like arrow’ the hadeeth about it in ‘Tabarani Kabeer’ is ‘Mauzu’ (spurious) and all the hadeethes to that effect are Za‘eef.
Ishaque bin Rahwayh says, ‘Either young or old, this sunnat from the Prophet (sm) is continued that he would support first on the ground with two hands. Then he would stand. There is a clear document about it in the famous hadeeth of salat shown by Abu Humaid Sa-‘edi (R), attested by ten Sahabis.
Merits of Sijdah (فضل السجدة) :
(1) The Prophet (sm) says,
عَنْ عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُوْلُ : مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ يَسْجُدُ لِلَّهِ سَجْدَةً إِلاَّ كَتَبَ اللهُ لَهُ بِهَا حَسَنَةً وَمَحَا عَنْهُ بِهَا سَيِّئَةً وَرَفَعَ لَهُ بِهَا دَرَجَةً، فَاسْتَكْثِرُوْا مِنَ السُّجُوْدِ، رواه ابنُ ماجه-
‘Who makes a sijdah for Allah, He writes for him one virtue and removes from him one vice and uplifts for him a grade of honour. So you make sijdah more & more’.
(2) The Prophet (sm) will recognize the believers in the Day of Resurrectin by seeing the brightness of their limbs of Ozu and places of sijdah.
(3) Allah will show kindness to some from among the dwellers of the Hell and will ask the angels as to go and bring those persons who have performed prayer to Allah’. Thereafter the Angels will find out them seeing their marks of sijdah and will bring them out. All the limbs of the sons of Adam will be gutted by the fire save the marks of sijdah, as Allah has made it forbidden for the Hell to eat up the marks of sijdah. 
Some other Doas of Sijdah :
1-اَللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِيْ ذَنْبِيْ كُلَّهُ دِقَّهُ وَجِلَّهُ أَوَّلَهُ وَآخِرَهُ وَعَلاَنِيَتَهُ وَسِرَّهُ (مسلم)-
2- سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ (مسلم)-
3- اَللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِيْ مَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ (مصنف ابن ابي شيبة والنسائي والحاكم)-
4- اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أَعُوْذُ بِرِضَاكَ مِنْ سَخَطِكَ، وَأَعُوْذُ بِمُعَافَاتِكَ مِنْ عُقُوبَتِكَ، وَأَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْكَ، لاَ أُحْصِيْ ثَنَاءً عَلَيْكَ، أَنْتَ كَمَا أَثْنَيْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ (مسلم)-
5- اَللَّهُمَّ لَكَ سَجَدْتُ، وَبِكَ آمَنْتُ، وَلَكَ أَسْلَمْتُ وَ أَنْتَ رَبِّىْ، سَجَدَ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِيْ خَلَقَهُ وَصَوَّرَهُ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَهُ وَشَقَّ سَمْعَهُ وَبَصَرَهُ، فَتَبَارَكَ اللهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِيْنَ (مسلم)- (صفة صلاة النبي r127-129)-
11. Last sitting (القعدة الأخيرة)
The sitting during salat, at the end of which the turning in Salam would make, is called as ‘last sitting’. It is Farz, without which, the salat would be void. But the 1st sitting is wajib, without which in mistake, the sijdah-i-saho would bewajib. After completion of the 2nd rak‘at the musalli is to sit. If it is 1st sitting then after reading ‘Attahiatu’ he will stand up for the 3rdrak‘at. But if it is the last sitting, then after reading ‘Attahiatu’ he will read Darood, Doa-i-Mathoorah and if possible other Doas.  In the 1st sitting one will sit on the left foot and for the last sitting the left foot will have to extend to the right side placing under the right leg and will sit on the left buttock and then right foot will have to be kept upright, pointing the toes towards the qibla.  Similar would sit the male & female on the left buttock in the sitting of Salam in any salat, even or uneven. It is called as ‘Tawarruk’ (التورك). 
At the time of sitting, the fingers of the left hand will be placed on the left knee pointing to the qibla in a normal position,  and the right hand will be in closed fist like the Bangla number of 53 and will have to beckon with moving the fore-finger (Shahadat). The beckoning will continue from the beginning of sitting till turning with Salam. Author of the Mir‘at Obaidullah Mubarakpuri (1904-94 A.D.) says, in pointing by the fore-finger it bears the witness of Tawheed i.e. the unity of Allah for worship. At the time of Doa, to see to the sky is prohibited. Pointing should not be so quick as to draw attention of the musalli sitting beside. There is no basis of raising fore-finger with ‘Ash hadu’ and bringing it down with‘Illalla-h’. The aim of musalli should not go beyond the point.  At this time one will read the following Doas:
(a) Tashahhud* (Attahiatu): See P. 19.
To address the Prophet (sm) : In all of the Saheeh Marfu‘ Hadeethes about to address the Prophet (sm) the word Ayuhan Nabiu has been stated. But after the demise of the Prophet (sm) Abdullah ibnu Mas‘ood (R) and some other Sahabis began to say ‘Alan Nabi in the place of Ayuhan Nabiu, as it has been stated in ‘Isti’zan’ chapter of saheeh Bukhari and other books of hadeeth. Yet all the Sahabis, Tabe‘iis, Muhaddetheen and Fuqaha have read Ayuhan Nabiu as before. The cause of this difference of opinion is that, in the life time of the Prophet (sm) though he may be addressed Ayuhan Nabiu, but after his death, he should not be addressed as such. As because, this sort of direct address in absentia may be made only to Allah alone. If the Prophet is addressed in such way even after his death, he might be considered as Allah. For this, some Sahabis began to say ‘Alan Nabi i.e. on the Prophet (sm).
On the other hand all other Sahabis continued to say Ayuhan Nabiu as before. Tibi (d. 743 A. H.) says, ‘It is for that, the Prophet (sm) taught them ‘Tashahhud’ in that wording. He did not ask to change any portion of it after his death. Therefore, the Sahaba-i-keram did not agree to change that wording.
The Author of the Mir‘at says, ‘It is not to consider whether dead or alive and present or absent. As in His life time also He would remain away from the Sahabis to a distant place or in a battle field. Yet they addressed the Prophet (sm) in Tashahhud with Ayuhan Nabiu. They did not make any change in their address during His presence or absence. Moreover, the matter is included in the ‘special matters’ (من خصائصه) of the Prophet (sm). This is to be read only in Tashahhud and not elsewhere.
This is to note that there is no plea for the grave-worshippers in this addressing. Through this hadeeth they want to prove that the Prophet (sm) is present everywhere and they want to fulfil their personal ends through Him as ‘waseelah’ i.e. the medium of salvation in the life hereafter. This is clearly a ‘Shirk-i-Akbar’ i. e. a great Polytheism.
After reading Tashahhud, the following Darood is to be read:
(b) Darood: See : P. 20.
Note: In Darood the Prophet (sm) and His family have been compared with that of the family of Ibraheem (A). For this, though it seems that the honour of the Prophet (sm) and His family has been humbled, but in fact their prestige has been enhanced. Because, Muhammad (sm) himself is a member of the family of Ibraheem (A) and is the best son of the mankind and the last Messenger of Allah. His comparison as a son with father Ibraheem (A) is never derogatory.
Secondly , there were thousands of Prophets in the family of Ibraheem (A). But in the family of Muhammad (sm) though there was no Prophet, yet comparing them with the progeny of Ibraheem (A), glorified with countless Prophets and Messengers, is undoubtedly the honour of the family of Muhammad (sm) has been enhanced to a great extent.
Merits of Darood :
The Prophet (sm) said,
عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ صَلاَةً وَاحِدَةً صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ عَشْرَ صَلَوَاتٍ وحُطَّتْ عَنْهُ عَشْرُ خَطِيْئَاتٍ وَّ رُفِعَتْ لَهُ عَشْرُ دَرَجَاتٍ، رَوَاهُ النَّسَائِيُّ-
‘The person who utters Darood once on me, Allah gives him ten virtues, ten sins from his accounts would be dropped and the grade of his honour increases ten times more than before’.
Thereafter the musalli will read the following Doa, which is known as ‘Doa-i-Mathoorah’. Besides this, other Doas may also be read as he knows. In this time the Doas from the Quran also be read.
(c) Doa Mathoorah (الأدعية المأثورة) :  See: P. 20.
After Tashahhud there is a special urge for reading the following Doa:
اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ عَذَابِ جَهَنَّمَ وَأَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ وَأَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَسِيْحِ الدَّجَّالِ وَأَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَحْيَا وَالْمَمَاتِ -
Pronunciation: Alla-humma innee A‘oozubika min ‘Aza-bi Jahannama, wa A‘oozubika min ‘Aza-bil qabri, wa A‘oozubika min Fitnatil Maseehid Dajja-li, wa A‘oozubika min fitnatil Mahya wal Mama-ti.
Meaning: Oh Allah! I seek refuge with you from the sufferings of the Hell and sufferings of the grave and from the ordeal of Dajjal and from the ordeal of life and death.
Between Tashahhud & Tasleem the prophet (sm) used to read at the end:
اَللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْلِيْ مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ، وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ، وَمَا أَسْرَفْتُ وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّيْ، أَنْتَ الْمُقَدِّمُ وَأَنْتَ الْمُؤَخِّرُ لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ-
(1) Pronunciation: Alla-hummaghfirlee ma Qaddamtu wa ma Akkhartu, wa ma Asrartu wa ma A‘lantu, wa ma Asraftu wa ma Anta A‘lamu bihi minnee. Antal Muqaddimu wa Antal Muakkhiru, La ila-ha Illa Anta.
Translation: Oh Allah! forgive me all which I did before and which I did after, which I did in secret and which I did in open, which I did excess and which you know more than me. You are the Lord of backward and you are the Lord of forward. There is none to be worshipped than you’. 
(2) اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّى أَسْأَلُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ النَّارِ Alla-hmma Innee As’alukal Jannata wa A‘oozubika minan Na-r’ (Oh Allah! I pray to you the Heaven and I seek refuge with you from the Hell).
About the Doas between Tashahhud & Tasleem :
The Prophet (sm) used to read various Doas between Tashahhud and salam. There narrated at the ending of Tashahhud of Ibnu Mas‘ood (R) (i.e. Attahiatu) that the Prophet (sm) says,ثُمَّ لِيَتَخَيَّرْ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ أَعْجَبَهُ إِلَيْهِ فَيَدْعُوْهُ ‘after Tashahhud, the musalli should say among the Doas he pleases’.  In explanation of this portion of hadeeth some scholars have opined that one should pray at this time all things worldly or of world hereafter which there is no sinful talk or opposite the etiquette.
Other scholars say that in prayer he should say only the Doas are narrated in the Quran & hadeeth. For which the Prophet (sm) says in another hadeeth that, ‘our salat there is no room for general talk for a Musalli. But it is only Tasbeeh, Takbeer and reciting the Quran’.
The only adjustment between two hadeethes may be that, all Doas for Allah will be said which are not of address to another and are not the out of etiquette. But whereas the total function of salat is performed by Arabic language, so it is not safe for a Non-Arab to say Doa by his self-made Arabic.
Secondly, the Doas in hadeethes are best for everyone in every time. But when the Doas are not known, then he should pray after Doa-i-Mathoorah prevailed (Alla-humma innee Zalamtu Nafsee…) by saying any one of substantial Doas as given below, which includes all needs of life here and hereafter. Anas (R) said that, the Prophet (sm) would read it most of the times.
اَللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَّفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ، أو اَللَّهُمَّ آتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَا…
Alla-humma Rabbana A-tina fiddunia Hasanataon wa fil A-khirati Hasanataon wa Qina ‘Aza-bann-r ’. Or Alla-humma A-tina fiddunia… .(‘Oh Allah! Oh our fosterer! You give benefaction to ours in worldly life and benefaction in the life hereafter and save us from the punishment of the Hell’).
In this time of Doa the requirements of worldly life should get into intention. Because ‘Allah knows the talks of mind of the slave and hears the cry of his heart’. In Doa should not specify the name of a thing, as because Allah knows well in which the benefaction of His slave lies in future.
After completion of Doa Mathoorah and other Doas the musalli will turn to the right and left saying ‘Assala-mu ‘Alikum wa Rahmatulla-h’. At the end of the 1stsalam may add ‘wa Baraka-tuhu’. Not in two sides. Then will say once Alla-hu Akbar loudly and three times ‘Astaghfirullah’ and once‘Alla-humma Antas Sala-mu wa minkas Sala-m, Taba-rakta ya zal Jala-li wal Ikra-m’. After it he can get him up. Or he will sit turning to the right or left directly to the muqtadis.  At the time of turning by the right, the Prophet (sm) some time says رَبِّ قِنِيْ عَذَابَكَ يَوْمَ تَبْعَثُ عِبَادَكَ Rabbi Qinee ‘Aza-baka Yauma Tab‘athu ‘Iba-daka. (Oh Allah! Save me from your punishment in the Day in which you will raise all of your slaves).
Zikr after salat (الذكر بعد الصلاة)
(1) اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ، أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ، اَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ، اَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ-
1. Alla-hu Akbar (once loudly). Astaghfirullah, Astaghfirullah, Astaghfirullah (three times).
Meaning: Allah is greatest. I pray forgiveness to Allah.
(2) اَللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ، تَبَارَكْتَ يَا ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَ الْإِكْرَامِ-
2. Alla-humma Antas Sala-mu wa Minkas Sala-m, Taba-rakta Ya zal Jala-li wal Ikra-m .
Meaning: ‘Oh Allah! You are the peace, from you comes the peace. You are full of bounties, Oh! the owner of dignity and honour’. After reading up to this he may get him up.
In this time the musalli should perform his sunnat salat some away from his place, by which the soil of two places of sijdah can give evidence of his prayer in the Day of Resurrection. As Allah says, يَوْمَئِذٍ تُحَدِّثُ أَخْبَارَهَا ‘In that very Day the Earth will describe about all things happened on it’.
(3) لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ، لاَحَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّةَ إلاَّ بِاللهِ (قَالَهُ النَّبِيُّ صـ بِصَوْتِهِ الْأَعْلَى)- اَللَّهُمَّ أَعِنِّيْ عَلَى ذِكْرِكَ وَ شُكْرِكَ وَ حُسْنِ عِبَادَتِكَ، اَللَّهُمَّ لاَ مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلاَ مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ وَلاَ يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَدُّ-
3. ‘La Ila – ha Illalla-hu Wahdahu la Shareekalahu lahul Mulku wa lahul Hamdu wa Hua ‘Ala Kulle Shayin Qadeer. La hawla wala quowata illa billah’. (in loud voice). Alla-humma A‘innee ‘Ala Zikrika wa Shukrika wa Husne ‘Iba-datika’. Alla-humma la Mani‘a lima A‘taita wala Mu‘tia lima Mana‘ta wala Yanfa‘u zal Jaddi minkal jaddu’.
Meaning: ‘There is none to be worshipped than Allah, who is unique and who has no partner. All the Kingdoms are for him and all the praises are for him. He is powerful over everything’. There is no power and no strength except Allah’. ‘Oh Allah! help me to recollect you and to express gratitude to you and to do fair worship for you’. ‘Oh Allah! There is none to prevent what you want to give and none to give what you want to prevent. No wealth of any rich man can do any good without your blessing’.
(4) رَضِيْتُ بِاللهِ رَبًّا وَّبِالْإِسْلاَمِ دِيْنًا وَّبِمُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيًّا.
4. Razeetu billa-hi Rabbaon wa bil Isla-mi Deenaon wa bi Muhammadin Nabiya.
Meaning: I have been pleased on Allah as the fosterer, on Islam as the religion and on Muhammad as the Prophet’.  The Prophet (sm) says, who read this Doa, the Heaven will be bounden for him’.
(5) اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّىْ أَعُوْذُبِكَ مِنَ الْجُبْنِ وَأَعُوْذُبِكَ مِنْ الْبُخْلِ وَأَعُوْذُبِكَ مِنْ اَرْذَلِ العُمُرِ وَأَعُوْذُبِكَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الدُّنْيَا وَعَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ-
5. Alla – humma Innee A‘oozubika minal Jubne, wa A‘oozubika minal Bukhle, wa A‘oozubika min Arzalil ‘Umore, wa A‘oozubika min Fitnatid Dunia wa ‘Aza-bil qabri’ .
Meaning: Oh Allah! I seek refuge with you from cowardliness, from miserliness, from much declining old age. I seek your shelter from the troubles of the worldly life and from the punishment of the grave.
(6) اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْهَمِّ وَالْحَزَنِ وَالْعَجْزِ وَالْكَسَلِ وَالْجُبْنِ وَالْبُخْلِ وَضَلَعِ الدَّيْنِ وَغَلَبَةِ الرِّجَالِ-
6. Alla-humma innee A‘oozu bika minal Hamme, wal Hazane, wal ‘Ajzhe, wal Kasale, wal jubne, wal Bukhle, wa Zala‘id Daine wa Ghalabatir Rija-li.
Meaning: Oh Allah! I seek refuge with you from anxiety and sorrow, from inability and laziness, from cowardliness and miserliness and from the burden of debt and forcefulness of men.
(7) سُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَ بِحَمْدِهِ عَدَدَ خَلْقِهِ وَ رِضَا نَفْسِهِ وَ زِنَةَ عَرْشِهِ وَ مِدَادَ كَلِمَاتِهِ-
7. Subha-nalla-hi wa Behamdihi ‘ Adada Khalqihi wa Riza Nafsihi wa zhinata ‘Arshihi wa mida-da Kalima-tih (3 times).
Meaning: Allah is full of holiness with all praises, similar to the numbers of His creation, and of the satisfaction of His being and equal to the weight of His ‘Arsh (the chair) and equal to the extent of His words of dignity.
(8) يَا مُقَلِّبَ الْقُلُوْبِ ثَبِّتْ قَلْبِي عَلَى دِيْنِكَ، اَللَّهُمَّ مُصَرِّفَ الْقُلُوْبِ صَرِّفْ قُلُوْبَنَا عَلَى طَاعَتِكَ-
8. Ya Muqallibal Quloobi, Thabbit Qalbee ‘Ala Deenika’. Alla-humma Musarrifal Quloobi Sarrif Quloobana ‘Ala Toa-‘atika’.
Meaning: Oh the Alterer of hearts, make firm my heart on your religion’. ‘Oh the Converter of hearts, convert our hearts to your obedience. 
(9) اَللَّهُمَّ أَدْخِلْنِىْ الْجَنَّةَ وَ أَجِرْنِىْ مِنَ النَّارِ-
9. Alla-humma Adkhilnil Jannata, wa Ajirnee minan Na-r’ (3 times).
Meaning: Oh Allah! Admit me into the Heaven and save me from the Hell.
(10) اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْهُدَى وَالتُّقَى وَالْعَفَافَ وَالْغِنَى-
10. Alla-humma innee As’alukal Huda wat Tuqa wal ‘Afa-fa wal Ghina’ .
Meaning: Oh Allah! I pray to you the guidance, Allah-fearing, chastity and well-to-do.
(11) سُبْحَانَ اللهِ، اَلْحَمْدُ ِللهِ، اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ، لآ إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَ هُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْئٍ قَدِيْرٌ-
11. Subha-nalla-h (33 times). Alhamdulilla-h (33 times). Alla-hu Akbar (33 times). La Ila-ha Illall-ahu Wahdahu La Shareeka lahu, Lahul Mulku wa Lahul Hamdu wa Hua ‘ Ala Kulle Shayin Qadeer.(1 time). Or Alla-hu Akbar (34 times).
Meaning: Glory be to Allah. All praises are for Allah. Allah is greatest. There is none to be worshipped than Allah. He is one, He has no partner. The whole kingdom is for Him and all praises are for Him and He is all powerful on everything’.
The Prophet (sm) says, who will read this Doa after every Farz salat, his all sins will be pardoned, though it may be as foam of the sea’. In another statement He says to ‘A-yesha and Fatima (R) to read it after every salat and at bed-time and He directed to them that it will be sufficient for you than a servant.
(12) سُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَ بِحَمْدِهِ، سُبْحَانَ اللهِ الْعَظِيْمِ-
12. Subha-nalla-hi wa Behamdihi, Subha-nalla-hil ‘Azeem’ Or to read in the morning and evening one hundred times in each ‘Subha-nalla-hi wa Behamdihi’.
Meaning: Most holiest is Allah and all praises for Him; Most holiest is Allah, who is glorious’. As a reward of this Doa, all sins will be dropped down, even if it would be like foam of the sea’. The Prophet (sm) says about this Doa as: ‘There are two sentences, which are dearer to Rahman (i.e Allah), lighter on tongue to say and weighty on Mizan (scale in the Day of judgement). That is Subha-nalla-hi…’  Imam Bukhari has concluded his renowned Saheeh Bukhari by the hadeeth of this Doa .
(13) اَللهُ لآ إِلهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّوْمُ، لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَّلاَ نَوْمٌ، لَهُ مَا فِى السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِى الْأَرْضِ، مَنْ ذَا الَّذِىْ يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ، يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيْهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلاَ يُحِيْطُوْنَ بِشَيْئٍ مَّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِمَا شَآءَ، وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، وَلاَ يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيْمُ- (بقرة 255)-
13. Ayatul Kursi: Alla-hu La Ila-ha Illa huwal Hayul Qayoom. La Ta’khuzuhu Senatun wala Naum. Lahu Ma-fis Sama-wa-te wama-fil Arz. Man zallazi yashfa ‘ u ‘ Indahu Illa Bi’iznih. Ya ‘ lamu ma Baina Aydeehim wama Khalfahum walala Yuheetoona Bi Shayim min ‘ Ilmihi Illa Bima Sha-’a. Wasi‘a Kursiuhus Sama-wa-te wal Arz; wala Ya’uduhu Hifzuhuma wa Huwal ‘Aliul ‘ Azeem’ (Baqarah 2/255) .
Meaning: Allah! there is none to be worshipped but He, who is ever-living and sustainer of the universe. No slumber nor sleep can seize Him. Whatever is there in the heavens and the earth are belong to His ownership. Without His permission who is there to recommend before Him? He knows everything of them what is before and what is behind. They cannot acquire anything from His knowledge, save what He wishes to give them. His Kursi  encompasses whole of the heavens and the earth. And the taking care of these does not make Him tired at all. He is most high and most glorious’.
The Prophet (sm) says, ‘The person who reads Ayatul Kursi after every salat, there would no barrier for him to enter the Heaven save his death (Nasaii). If it is read in bed-time, an Angel will remain as guard for his sake till morning. So that the Satan may not reach to him (Bukhari).
(14) اَللَّهُمَّ اكْفِنِيْ بِحَلاَلِكَ عَنْ حَرَامِكَ وَ أَغْنِنِىْ بِفَضْلِكَ عَمَّنْ سِوَاكَ-
14. Alla-hummakfinee Behala-leka ‘An Hara-meka wa Aghninee Befazleka ‘Amman Sewa-ka .
Meaning: Oh Allah! Make me sufficient with Halal (lawful) and not with Haram (Prohibited) and by your kindness make me free from dependence on others’. The Prophet (sm) says, by this Doa Allah arranges for getting rid of his debts if it be as large as a hill. 
(15) أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ الَّذِىْ لآ إلهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّوْمُ وَ أَتُوْبُ إِلَيْهِ-
15. Astaghferulla-hallazi La Ila-ha Illa Huwal Hayul Qaiyoomu wa Atoobu Ilaihe.
Meaning: I beg pardon before Allah, except whom there is none to be worshipped, who is ever-living and sustainer of the universe and I am turning back (Tawba) to Him with repentance’.
Allah forgives him who reads this Doa, though he may be accused as who fled from the field of Jihad (battle for religion). 
The Prophet (sm) used to make Tawba 100 times in a day.
16. The Prophet (sm) would advise to read sura Falaq and Nass at the end of every salat.  He used to touch whole body as much His capability every night at bed-time with head & face by His two hands blowing into it after reading sura Ikhlas, Falaq & Nass. He would do it three times. 
‘Munajat’ means to talk secretly with each other (Al-Munjid etc.). The Prophet (sm) says, إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ إِذَا صَلَّى يُنَاجِىْ رَبَّهُ ‘When some of you is engaged in salat, then he does ‘Munajat’ with his Lord’, i.e. he talks secretly with Allah’.  So, the salat is not a meditation, but it is the name of seeking pardon to Allah directly and to make prayer to Him. He says to Allah that which cannot be said to others on the Earth. Allah very much understands the language of eyes and wailing of heart of His slave.
Allah says, أُدْعُوْنِىْ أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ ‘Invoke Me, I will respond to you’ (Mumin/Ghafir 40/60). The Prophet (sm) says, اَلدُّعَاءُ هُوَ الْعِبَادَةُ ‘Doa is the prayer’. Therefore, the system of Doa should be according to the Sunnah.We shall have to see in which way the Prophet (sm) used to make His Doa. The way He prayed, we are to pray in that way. Leaving aside the system of Doa He left, if it is done in any other way, it is most likely to bring sins instead of being accepted.
The Prophet (sm) made his Doa in between the salat. The time span of salat is from takbeer-i-tahreemah to the turning with Salam. In this lonely moment of Salat the slave does ‘Munajat’ before his Lord. Salat means Doa, to pray for forgiveness etc. Beginning with Sana till turning with Salam, everywhere there is Doa and Doa only. If they read it knowing the meaning, then the slave will have nothing to pray beyond those Doas. Yet after turning with salam, there is wide scope for Doa alone. Then any legal Doa in any language can be made according to one’s desire. Hafez Ibnul Qayim says, ‘this Doa is not the Doa at the end of salat (دبر الصلاة), but it would be considered as Doa after 2nd prayer (عبادة ثانية) by Tasbeeh & Tahleel’. Because, as long as the musalli is in salat, he is engaged in secret talks with his Lord i.e. he does Munajat. But whenever he turns in Salam, that relation would be cut off. 
Places of Doa in Salat:
(1) Sana i. e. Doa-i-Istiftah, which begins with Alla-humma Ba-‘id Baini… (2) The best Doa is Alhamdulillah and Ihdinas Sira-tal Mustaqeem of sura Fatiha. (3) In ruku ‘Subha-nakalla-humma’… (4) Doa of Qawmah after rising from ruku, ‘Rabbana wa lakal Hamdu, Hamdan katheeran’… or other Doas (5) In sijdah,‘Subha-nakalla-humma’… or other Doas (6) To pray for six items by saying Alla-hummaghfirlee… sitting between two sijdahs. (7) To pray with Doa Mathoorah and other Doas between tashahhud and tasleem at the last sitting. (8) Besides these, there is scope for long Doas standing in Qawmah reading with Doa-i-qunoot.
The Prophet (sm) says, the slave reaches very nearer to Allah during his sijdah. Therefore, you make Doa at that time as much as you can. In another hadeeth it is said that he would make more Doas in betweenTashahhud and Tasleem. After turning in salam the opportunity of Munajat i.e. secret talks between Allah and His slave would be cut off. Therefore, all sorts of Doa in salat should be completed before turning in salam and not after it. Now if someone desires any special Doa from the musallis, then he can publish it in advance by himself or through the Imam. So that the musallis may also include him in their respective intention (Niyat) in Doa.
Congregational Doa after the Farz salat
(الدعاء الجماعى بعد الصلوات المكتوبة )
After the end of the Farz salat by turning with salam, the Imam and Muqtadis jointly making Doa raising there two hands in which Imam will pronounce the Doa loudly and Muqtadis will say ‘Ameen’ ‘Ameen’ loudly, this practice in vogue is an innovation (Bid‘at) in Shari‘ah. There is no proof by any saheeh or za‘eef hadeeth in favour of it from the Prophet (sm) or Sahaba-i-Keram. This is to note that till to-day in two great mosques of the Haram of Makkah and Madina there is no existence of this system of congregational Doa.
Harmful aspects of congregational Doa in vogue:
(1) This is a practice against Sunnah. Therefore, it may seems how much sweet and fine, there is every possibility for that person to be included among the practitioners incurring loss, as it is stated in the verses 103-4 of sura Kahf (2) As a result of it, the musallis would pay more importance to the matters outside of salat, i.e. Munajat in vogue than the salat itself. For this reason people at present are giving more importance to Munajat after Farz salat and are showing more interest to join in Bid‘ati congregations namely ‘Akheri Munajat’ and are rushing there in groups and flocks. (3) For the bad effect of this system a musalli though performs salat throughout his life, he does not learn the meanings of anything of his Doas. Rather, he awaits the Munajat of the Imam after the end of salat. (4) What the Imam says in Arabic in his Munajat, he cannot grasp anything of it. On the other hand he himself cannot say anything. The Doas he read in salat before it, he cannot pour his heart there, as he didn’t know the meanings of Doas. As a result, the condition of that musalli remains throughout his life as ‘Na Gharka, na Ghatka’ i.e. neither of the house nor of the quay. (5) As the Imam does not know the minds of the musallis, they get nothing except uttering ‘Ameen’ ‘Ameen’ (6) Through the Munajat of the Imam in piteous tone for long time in Arabic, Urdu, Bangla and other language, there may have intention to fascinate the minds of the listeners and musallis. As a result, there may arise more possibility of ‘Ria’ i.e. to show & make hear, which commits grave sin. ‘Ria’ has been termed in hadeeth as الشرك الأصغر ‘small shirk’. For which there may be created the certain possibility of ruining total virtues of the Imam which he may have earned.
Congregational Doa in salat raising two hands :
(1) In salat of Istisqa i.e. to seek rainfal to Allah, the Imam & Muqtadis would make Doa congregationally raising their hands. (2) In the Qunoot of Nazhilah & Vitr the Doa could be made by Imam & Muqtadis raising their hands.
To make Doa lonely raising two hands :
Out of salat the slave will make Doa to his fosterer in any time by any language. But the Doa of hadeethes is better. Allah seems Himself ashamed to give back the raising hands of His slave empty, who makes Doa to Him lonely. Joining the open two palms will make Doa putting it face level in front. The hadeeth of touching the face after Doa is za‘eef.  But he will leave it free in raising condition after Doa.
(1) The Prophet (sm) prays with wailing to Allah lonely for His Ummah raising two hands. (2) He makes Doa lonely facing the qibla with piteous voice raising two hands in the day of the battle of Badr.  (3) The Prophet (sm) prayed with apology to Allah raising two hands lonely two times being mortified for killing some people of Banu Jazima tribe by mistake. (4) He prayed afterOzu for platoon commander Abu ‘Amer Ash‘ari (R), the martyr of the battle of Awtas, the nephew of Abu Musa Ash‘ari (R) raising two hands lonely.  (5) He prayed for the hidayat (i.e. to guide towards the right path) of Daus tribe raising two hands lonely facing the qibla.
Besides (6) During Hajj & ‘Umrah at the time of Sa‘ii (Running) after getting up on the mount ‘Safa’ making Doa facing the Ka‘ba raising two hands lonely. (7) Doa at the field of Arafat raising two hands lonely. (8) Doa after throwing grivel into the hole of 1st & 2nd jamrah going some away from it raising two hands lonely facing the Ka‘ba. (9) Doa of traveller raising two hands lonely. 
Except these, at the Jum‘ah, Eidayen and other meetings & congregations if one makes Doa, then others should say only ‘Ameen’ (without raising two hands). Even if one makes Doa, other can say ‘Ameen’ with it.
This is to note that, it is not the condition of Doa to make always ablution and facing the qibla and raising two hands. But the slave will pray to Allah in any time in any circumstances, such as it would always have been done in different Doas as in eating & drinking, in tiolet & travelling etc. Allah has made order to His slave to ask Him in any time and in any condition. 
Doas of Quran (دعاء القرآن) :
Reciting from the Quran is prohibited in ruku and sijdah. But it is permissible to recite by some change in word without changing in meaning as Alla-humma Rabbana A-tina or Alla-humma A-tina fiddunya… in the place of Rabbana A-tina fiddunya…. (Baqarah 2/201). In the last sitting after tashahhud before turning in salam, all kinds of Doa on the basis of saheeh hadeethes with those from the Quran are allowed.
Description of Sunnat and Nafl (السنن والنوافل) :
(a) All salats except the Farz are Nafl i.e. additional. But all those Nafl which the Prophet (sm) had regularly performed and urged others to perform as well, are to be called in Fiqhi (Legal) terminology as ‘Sunnat-i-Muakkadah’ or ‘Sunnat-i-Ra-tibah’. For example, the Sunnats before and after the Farz salats. If these Sunnats has been fallen due, these are to perform anew. Such as the first two or four rak‘at sunnats of the Zuhr if fallen due, these should be said after Zuhr salat and the tworak‘at sunnats of the Fajr if fallen due, it should be said just after the Fajr salat.  He should not wait for sunrise, which is in vogue.
The second category of Sunnat is ‘Ghair Muakkadah’, the performance of which is sunnat and there are virtues in it, but no special urge for that. The Prophet (sm) says, ‘there is salat between two Azans i.e. the Azan & Iqamat (twice) and He says in 3rd time, who wishes’. Such as two or four rak‘ats of sunnat before ‘Asr salat, two rak‘ats before Maghrib and ‘Esha salat.  Then the Prophet (sm) particularly said about Maghrib, you say two rak‘ats before the salat of Maghrib (twice), and in 3rd time He said, who wishes’. By which the virtues of nafl salat are achieved in one hand and on the other hand the number of musallis will be increased. By which the virtues of Jama-‘at will be enhanced.
(b) There should be a change of place and waiting for some time for making a bit difference between Farz and Sunnat salats. 
(c) It is better to say Nafl or Sunnat salat at home instead of mosque. The Prophet (sm) says, the Nafl salat at home is better than in my mosque except the Farz ones. In another hadeeth it has been remarked ‘you should not make your homes graves, rather say some salat (sunnat-nafl) there’. 
Imam Nabavi (Rh) says, it may be reason why the nafl salat was encouraged at home, as that is performed in secret and avoids exhibition(Ria), the affluence comes in the house, the blessings of Allah and the Angels appear in the house and the Satan goes away. 
(d) For general nafl salat there is no definite rak‘ats, but it can be said as much as one pleases.  But the particular nafl salat of night i.e. the Tarabeeh or Tahajjud, the Prophet (sm) did not said it more than eleven rak‘ats.
(e) Some portions of the same nafl salat can be said in standing position, while the rest in sitting position. 
(f) After the sunnat of Fajr salat, should lay down at the right side for short time. 
Merits of Sunnat & Nafl: The Prophet (sm) says,
مَنْ صَلَّى فِىْ يَوْمٍ وَ لَيْلَةٍ اثْنَتَيْ عَشْرَةَ رَكْعَةً بُنِيَ لَهُ بَيْتٌ فِى الْجَنَّةِ: أَرْبَعًا قَبْلَ الظُّهْرِ وَرَكْعَتَيْنِ بَعْدَهَا وَرَكْعَتَيْنِ بَعْدَ الْمَغْرِبِ وَرَكْعَتَيْنِ بَعْدَ الْعِشَاءِ وَرَكْعَتَيْنِ قَبْلَ صَلاَةِ الْفَجْرِ، رواه الترمذى ومسلم عن ام حبيبة (رض)-
(1) ‘The person who would perform 12 rak‘ats of salat in a day, for him a house will be built in the Heaven: four rak‘ats beforeZuhr and two after, two rak‘ats after Maghrib, two after ‘Esha and two before the Fajr. From ibnu Umar (R) it has also been stated that the Prophet (sm) would perform total ten rak‘ats, with two rak‘ats before the Zuhr regularly as sunnat.
(2) The Prophet (sm) says,
… فَإِنْ انْتَقَصَ مِنْ فَرِيْضَتِهِ شَيْءٌ قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ انْظُرُوْا هَلْ لِعَبْدِي مِنْ تَطَوُّعٍ فَيُكَمَّلَ بِهَا مَا انْتَقَصَ مِنْ الْفَرِيضَةِ ثُمَّ يَكُوْنُ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ-
‘If there is any lack in Farz prayer (in the scale) in the Day of Judgement, Allah will say that, see to My slave, if there is any nafl prayer? Then will have seen to his nafl deeds and will be filled up the lack by these. Thus will be done about his all deeds (such as salat, siam, zakat, hajj etc.).
He says, you go ahead quickly to do virtuous deeds before the appearance of comprehensive mischiefs as like as pitch dark night. When the person will rise in the morning as a believer and will make his evening as an Infidel. And will make his evening as believer and will rise at the morning as infidel. He will have to sell his Deen in exchange of his worldly gain’. That means the injustice will prevail everywhere. It will be very difficult to find out the true path. The way of virtuous deed will not be available at all. Such as in present days, the deed with shirk & bid‘at is called as virtuous, and the deed with saheeh sunnah is called as void.
(3) Rabi ‘ah bin Ka‘b , the servant claims one day to be with the Prophet (sm) in the Heaven. The Prophet (sm) advises him to help Him by more sijdahs. Another servant Thawban claims same and the Prophet (sm) replies to him to do more and more sijdahs. As because by one sijdah Allah will enhance one bed of your honour and will remove one vice from you.
Salat of Masbooq (صلاة المسبوق) :
If some one gets a portion of salat with the Imam, he is called as Masbooq. The Musalli will join the salat withImam in whatever condition he will get him. The part of salat which he gets withImam, will be considered as the 1st portion of his salat. If he gets him in the ruku then he will simply read sura Fatiha and will join the ruku. In this time, there is no need to read Doa-i-Istiftah. If he fails to read sura Fatiha, then his rak‘at will not be counted. Musafir (stranger) will fulfil his salat, if he follows the Muqeem (dweller). So, he has to join the Jama-‘at in whatever position he will get the Imam, either in ruku, sijdah, sitting or in any other position. It will earn him the full virtues of Jama-‘at. The Prophet (sm) says,فَمَا أَدْرَكْتُمْ فَصَلُّوْا وَمَا فَاتَكُمْ فَأَتِمُّوْا ‘The portion of salat you get, perform it and the portion you failed to attend, fulfill it. 
Qaza salat ( قضاء الفوائت ) :
Qaza i.e. the due salat should be performed earlier and serially with Iqamat.  As it was said by the Prophet (sm) and His disciples during the battle of Khandaq four salats of four times from Zuhr to Esha with one Azan and four Iqamats. The Prophet (sm) says, مَنْ نَسِىَ صَلاَةً أَوْ نَامَ عَنْهَا فَكَفَّارَتُهَا أَنْ يُصَلِّيَهَا إِذَا ذَكَرَهَا ‘one who forgets his salat or goes asleep, his penalty is to perform that salat just after rising from the sleep and at the moment he remembers’.
The ‘Umri Qaza’ i.e. the due salats of past days or throughout his life, which are now he wishes to perform daily adding with his regular Farz salats, is totally a Bid‘ati custom. Because the Islam would come down all things before it and Allah would forgive all sins of the slave when he makes Tawba (repentance) sincerely.
Besides he should say nafl Ibadats more and more. As because in the Day of judgement if the Farz prayers are to laid lassen, then it will be fill up by the virtues of his nafl prayers by the order of Allah.
 . Abu Daud H/730, Hadeeth Saheeh; Daremi, Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah and others; Do, Mishkat H/801, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 10, Description of salat; Bangla translation of Mishkat shareef (Dhaka : Emdadiah library. 5th edn. 1987) H/745 (12), 1/340.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, The 1st Hadeeth of Saheeh Bukhari and the Mishkat.
 . Hakem, Baihaqi, Albani, Sifatu Sala-tin Nabi (Beirut : 1403/1983) P. 69; Irwa H/354. See in it’s end.
 . Abu Daud H/737.
 . Bukhari (Delhi) 1/102; H/740. Ch: 10, Azan, Para: 87; Do, Mishkat H/798, Para: 10, Description of salat; This is to note that in Bangla translation of Saheeh Bukhari which is published by the Islamic Foundation Dhaka (1991), Adhunik Prakashoni Dhaka (1988) etc. more than one government and private publishing organizations of Bangladesh has written in translation of this Hadeeth as ‘wrist of right hand on the wrist of left hand’. What is the cause of adding the word ‘wrist’ here is known well to the learned translators and publishers alone. But everybody knows that making difference in translation of Hadeeth of the prophet (sm) is a grave mischief.
 . Ahmad H/22610, Sanad Hasan, Albani, Ahkamul Janaiz, Mas’ala No. 76. P. 118; Tirmizi (with Tuhfa, Cairo: 1407/1987) H/252, Ch: 2, Salat. Para: 187, 2/81, 90; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/109.
 . Saheeh ibnu Khuzaimah H/479; Abu Daud H/755, from Ibnu Mas‘ood; Do, H/759, from Ta’oos bin Kaisan; Ch: 2, Salat. Para: 120, ‘Putting right hand on the left in salat’.
 . Naylul Awtar 3/25.
 . Nayl, 3/22; Fiqhus Sunnah (Cairo: 1412/1992) 1/109.
 . Mir‘atul Mafateeh (Delhi: 4th edn. 1415/1995) 3/63; Tuhfatul Ahwazi 2/89.
 . Mir‘at (Lahore: 1st edn. 1380/1961)1/558; Do. 3/63; Tuhfa 2/83.
 . Mir‘at 3/59; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/109; Nayl 3/19.
 . Mir‘at 3/59. See commentary of H/804.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/112; Nayl 3/36-39.
 . Naylul Awtar 3/52.
 . Naylul Awtar 3/46.
 . Abu Daud H/788, Ch: 2, Salat, Para: 125.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/823, Para: 12, Recitation in Salat; Tafseer Qurtubi, ‘Preface’, see about Bismillah.
 . Saheeh ibnu Khuzaimah (Beirut: 1391/1971), H/494-96; Ahmad, Muslim, Nayl 3/39; Daraqutni H/1186-95, Hadeeth Saheeh.
 . Naylul Awtar 3/46.
 . Za-dul Ma‘a-d, P. 1/199-200; Nayl 3/47; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/102.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/822; Para: 12, ‘Recitation in Salat’. That Hadeeth has been narrated in almost all the books of Hadeeth including Kutub-i-Sittah.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/804; Abu Daud H/859, Ch: 2, Salat, Para: 149.
 . Abu Daud H/818, Ch: 2, Salat, Para: 136.
 . Abu Daud H/820.
 . Bukhari, juz’ul Qira-’at; Tabarani Awsatt, Baihaqi, Saheeh ibnu Hibban H/1844, Hadeeth Saheeh -Arna-woott; Tuhfatul Ahwazi, Para: 229, ‘Qira-’at behind the Imam’ Commentary of H/310 (فالطريقان محفوظان) 2/228; Naylul Awtar 2/67, Para: ‘The qira-’at and keeping silence of the Muqtadis’.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/823, Para: 12, Recitation in Salat.
 . Tirmizi (with Tuhfa) H/247; See commentary, 2/61; Abu Daud (with ‘Awn) H/806; See Commentary, 3/38.
 . Tirmizi (with Tuhfa) H/310; Mishkat H/854, Para: 12, ‘Recitation in Salat’; Ahmad H/22798, Sanad Hasan –Arna-woott; Hakem 1/238, H/869. Albani said permissible (جائز) and not indispensable (واجب) to recite sura Fatiha for muqtadis in jehri salat by this hadeeth. (See F. N. of H/854 of the Mishkat). Afterward he opined that hadeeth as Za‘eef (Abu Daud H/823). Even in another place he opined to say sura Fatiha as Mansookh (منسوخ) behind the Imam in jehri salat (Sifat P. 79-81). On the other hand Imam Bukhari has composed a chapter to say sura Fatiha as ‘wajib’ for both Imam & Muqtadis in all salats of jehri & serri (Saheeh Bukhari Ch: 10, Azan, Para: 95).
 . Qurtubi, See Tafseer of that verse 7/354.
 . Noorul Anwar, 213-14; Naylul Awtar, 3/67.
 . As Allah says, وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَاكَ سَبْعًا مِّنَ الْمَثَانِيْ وَالْقُرْآنَ الْعَظِيْمَ ‘And indeed we have bestowed upon you seven repeatedly recited verses (sura Fatiha) and the Grand Quran’ (Hijr 15/87). The Prophet (sm) says, إِنَّا مَعْشَرَ الأَنْبِيَاءِ لاَ نُورَثُ مَا تَرَكْنَاهُ صَدَقَةٌ ‘We the messengers, would not leave any inheritor. What we would have left off, would be the gift (for Ummah)’. Kanzul Ummal H/35600; Nasaii Kubra H/6309; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/5976, Ch: 29, ‘Fazail & Shamail’ Para: 10.
 . Nahl 16/44, 64.
 . Najm 53/3-4 وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى، إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ وَحْيٌ يُوحَى; Qiamah 75/19 ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ.
 . Abu Daud, Nasaii, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/855, Para: 12, Recitation in Salat.
 . Hujjatulla-hil Ba-lighah (Qairo: Darut Turath 1355/1936) P. 2/9.
 . Abu Daud H/827; ‘Awnul Ma‘bood H/811-12. Para: 135; Naylul Awtar 3/65.
 . Abu Daud, Nasaii, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/857.
 . Ibnu Majah H/850, Daraqutni H/1220, Baihaqi 2/159-60, Hadeeth Za‘eef.
 . Fathul Bari 2/283; see commentary H/756; Naylul Awtar, 3/70; Albani has opined it as ‘Hasan’ and said that any source (sanad) of this Hadeeth is not free from weakness (ضعف). But the total weak sources give witness that it has a basis (أن للحديث أصلا) –Irwa H/500, P. 2/277. The above opinion bears hint that the Hadeeth is basically Za‘eef, as other scholars give unanimous opinion.
 . Tabarani, Baihaqi, Sayuti, Al-Jame‘ul Kabeer H/1194; Albani, Tamamul Minnah P. 329.
 . Baihaqi, Mishkat H/35, Ch: 1, Iman, Sanad ‘Jaiyd’.
 . Daraqutni (Beirut: Darul Kutubil Ilmiyah, 1417/1996) H/1212, P.1/319, Sanad Saheeh.
 . Saheeh Ibnu Khuzaimah H/490, P.1/247-48, Sanad Saheeh.أجزأ الشيئ فلانا اي كفاه means ‘it has been enough for him’, Al-Mu‘jamul Waseett, P. 119-20.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1412, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 45, ‘Khutba & Salat’.
 . Muslim H/1085 Ch: Salat. Para: 38; Abu Daud (with ‘Awn) Para: 152, H/875, P. 3/145.
 . Daraqutni H/1587 Para: ‘the person who has got a rak‘at of Jum‘a or not’.
 . Daraqutni H/1587, Hadeeth Za‘eef. See footnote.
 . Abu Daud with ‘Awnul Ma‘bood H/669-70; Abu Daud H/683-84, Para: 101.
 . ‘Awnul Ma‘bood P.3/146. Commentary of H/875.
 . Saheeh Ibnu Khuzaimah, (Beirut: 1st edn. 1391/1971 A. D. Tahqeeq: Dr. Muhammad Mustafa Al-A‘zami), Ch: Salat, Para: 93, 94, P. 1/246-47.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/686, Para: 6, ‘To chant Azan lately’.
 . Bukhari, Juz’ul qira-’at, Mas’ala No. 106, P. 46; ‘Awnul Ma‘bood, See commentary of H/875, P. 3/152.
 . Silsila Saheehah H/229, See at the end of commentary.
 . Shawkani, Naylul Awtar 3/69.
 . Bukhari, juz’ul qira-’at, H/28, P. 13.
 . Naylul Awtar P. 3/69.
 . Naylul Awtar P. 3/67-68.
 . Daraqutni, H/1178, Tirmirzi, Mishkat H/2205, Ch: 8, Merits of Quran, Para: 1, Manners of recitation; Nayl, 3/49-50.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Ibnu Majah, Daremi, Mishkat H/2199, 2208.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/2192.
 . Nasaii H/894; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/812, Para:11.The hadeeth about two Saktas is Za‘eef (Abu Daud, Tirmirzi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/818).
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/828, Para: 12, ‘Recitation in Salat; Nayl, P. 3/76.
 . Bukhari, Muslim etc. Naylul Awtar, P. 3/80-82, Para: ‘Reading two suras in every rak‘at and rule of succession’; Abu Daud, Mishkat H/862, Para: 12.
 . Ibnu Majah H/843, Ch: 5, Standing in Salat, Para: 11.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/828, Para: 12, ‘Recitation in Salat’, Naylul Awtar P. 3/76, 4/24.
 . Muwatta H/260; Mir‘a-t, 1/600; Do. P. 3/131.
 . (1) The 7 long suras of the first part of the Quran are called as ‘Long seven’ (السبع الطوال). Which are sura Baqarah, A-le Imran, Nisa, Maidah, An‘a-m, A‘raf and Tawbah. Some scholars considered Anfal and Tawbah jointly as one sura. (2) The 28 suras from the Qaf to the Mursalat are called as ‘Long detail’ (طوال المفصَّل). (3) The 15 suras from Naba to Layl are called as ‘Medium detail’ (أوساط المفصَّل). (4) The 22 suras from Zuha to Nass are called as ‘Short detail’ (قصار المفصَّل). The others are considered as general suras
 . Muslim, Nasaii, Mishkat H/842, 848; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Nasaii, Mishkat H/828, 829, 853; Albani, ‘Sifatu Sala-tin Nabi’ P. 89-102, 137.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/825, Para: 12, Recitation in Salat; Muwatta (Multan, Pakistan 1407/1986) H/46, Ch: Salat, P. 52.
 . Daraqutni H/1253-55, 57,59; Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Daremi, Mishkat H/845.
 . Munzeri, Saheeh At-Targheeb, H/511, F.N. Albani, P.1/278.
 . Bukhari, Ta‘leeq, 1/107, H/780; Fathul Bari H/780-81, Para: 111, To say Ameen loudly.
 . Saheeh Ibnu Khuzaimah, H/575, Para: 139.
 . Tirmizi, Abu Daud & Others; Mishkat H/818, see F.N. by Albani, Ch: 4, ‘Salat’ Para: 11; See Monthly At-Tahreek, Rajshahi, Vol. 7, Number 10. July 2004. Fatwa No. 40/400, P.P. 55-56.
 . Ahmad, Ibnu Majah H/856 from ‘A-yesha (R); Saheeh At-Targheeb H/512.
 . Ar-Rauzatun Nadiyah 1/271.
 . Daraqutni, commentary of H/1256; Ar-Rauzatun Nadiyah 1/272; Nayl 3/75.
 . Baihaqi, Hakem, Sifat P. 69.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/881.
 . Ibnu Majah H/888; Ahmad, Abu Daud H/885; Albani, ‘Sifat’. P.113, Para: ‘The Doas of Ruku’ F.N.2, 3.
 . Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/880, 883, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 13, Ruku.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/871; Naylul Awtar 3/106.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/874-77; Bukhari H/732-35, 738; Muslim H/868, 904, 913, Ch: Salat; Sifatu Sala-tin Nabi P.P. 117-19.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/877, Para: 13, Ruku.
 . Ibnu Majah H/3801; Za‘eeful Jame‘ H/1877.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/790, Para: 10, Description of salat; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/121.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi & others, Mishkat H/878 from Abu Mas‘ood Ansari (R), Naylul Awtar 3/113-14.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/792.
 . Tirmizi, Nasaii, Mishkat H/804.
 . Muslim, Bukhari, Mishkat H/797, 798.
 . Darul Ifta, Majmua‘ Rasail Fis Salat’ (Riyadh: 1405 A.H) PP. 134-39; Badiuddin Shah Rashedi Sindhi, ‘Ziadatul Khushu‘ (Kuwait: 1406/1986 A.D) PP.1-38.
 . See for detail: Albani, ‘Sifatu Sala-tin Nabi’. P.120, F.N. Para: ‘Making Qawmah lengthy’; Albani, Mishkat H/804 F.N. Para: 10, ‘Description of salat’; Muhibbullah Shah Rashedi Sindhi, Naylul Amani, (Karachi : N. D.) PP.1-42; Monthly At-Tahreek, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, December ’98. Vol. 2, No. 3. P.P. 50-51.
 . Naylul Awtar P. 3/19.
 . ‘Ashara-i-Mubashsharah’ means ten great Sahabis who got the good news of heaven in their lifetime. They are: (1) Abu Bakr Siddique Abdullah bin Othman Abu Quhafah (d.13 A.H. age 63) (2) Umar ibnul Khattab (d.23 A.H. age 60) (3) Othman bin ‘Affan (d.35 A.H. age not less than 83) (4) Ali ibnu Abi Talib (d.40 A.H. age 60) (5) Abu Ubaidah ‘A-mer bin Abdullah ibnul Jarrah (d.18 A.H. age 58) (6) Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awof (d.32 A.H. age 75) (7) Talha bin Ubaidullah (d.36 A.H. age 62) (8) Zubair ibnul ‘Awam (d.36 A.H. age 75) (9) Sa‘eed bin Zaid bin ‘Amar (d.51 A.H. age 71) (10) Sa‘d ibnu Abi Waqqas (d.55 A.H. age 82) Razialla-hu ‘Anhum. (May Allah please them).
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/107, Fathul Bari 2/258. see commentary of H/737, Ch: 10, Azan, Para: 84.
 . Majduddeen Firozabadi (729-817 A. H.), Sifrus Sa‘a-dat (Lahore : 1302 A. H. Urdu from Persian) P.15.
 . Tuhfatul Ahwazi 2/100, 106; Albani, Sifatu Sala-tin Nabi, P.109.
 . Fathul Bari P. 2/257; See Commentary of H/736, Ch: 10, Azan, Para: 84.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Bukhari, Mishkat H/793-94, Para: 10, Description of Salat.
 . Baihaqi, Ma‘rifatus Sunan wal A-tha-r H/813, Mursal Hasan, 2/472; Muwatta Malik, Para: ‘starting of salat’ Mursal Saheeh, Mishkat H/808; Naylul Awtar 3/12-13; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/108.
 . Muslim H/865, Ch: Salat. Para: 9.
 . Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/809, Para: 10, Description os salat.
 . Naylul Awtar 3/14; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/108.
 . Mishkat H/809, F. N. (Albani) P. 1/254.
 . Hujjatulla-hil Ba-lighah P .2/10.
 . Naylul Awtar 3/12; Fathul Bari 2/257.
 . Naylul Awtar 3/12; Sifat 109.
 . Bukhari, Muslim, Saheeh At-Targheeb, H/16; Mishkat H/44.
 . Hujjatulla-hil Ba-lighah P. 2/10.
 . Saheeh Ibnu Khuzaimah. H/694.
 . Masail-i-Imam Ahmad, (Madinah Tayebah, Ist. edn. 1406/1986) Mas’ala No. 320.
 . Albani, Sifatu Salatin Nabi P.121.
 . Ibnul Qayim, Badai‘ul Fawaid 3/89-90; Masail-i-Imam Ahmad, Mas’ala No. 320. 1/236.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/869, Para: 13 ‘Ruku’.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Irwaul Ghaleel H/307.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/887, Para: 14, ‘Sijdah and its merit’.
 . Abu Daud H/840; Do. Mishkat H/899, Para: 14.
 . Abu Daud H/838; Do. Mishkat H/898, F.N. P. 1/282; Mir‘at 3/217-18; Irwa H/357.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Bukhari, Mishkat H/792, Para: 10, H/888, Para: 14.
 . ‘Because, two hands also lie in prostration as the face lies in prostration’, Muwatta, Mishkat H/905, Para: 14, Sijdah & its merit.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/123; Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Naylul Awtar, 3/121.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/891, Para: 14.
 . Abu Daud, Mishkat H/801, Para: 10, Description of salat.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/888, Para: 14, Sijdah & its merit.
 . Muslim, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/890, Para: 14.
 . Bukhari, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/792, 801, Para: 10.
 . Subulus Salam Sharah Bulooghul Maram, See commentary of H/282, Ch: Limbs of Sijdah, 1/373; Za‘eeful Jame‘ H/643; Silsila Za‘eefah H/2652.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/894, Para: 14, H/873, Para: 13; Nayl. 3/109; Mir‘at 1/635; Do, 3/221-22.
 . Ibnu Majah H/888; Ahmad, Abu Daud & others; ‘Sifat’ P. 113,127.
 . Abu Daud H/888; Nasaii, Mishkat H/883.
 . Nasaii, Fiqhus Sunnah 1/126.
 . Ibnu Majah H/897; Nasaii, Daremi, Mishkat H/901, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 14, ‘the prostration and it’s merit’.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/796, Para: 10; Nayl 3/138.
 . Bukhari with Fathul Bari, H/824, Para: 143, ‘How will support on the ground at the time of rising’, Ch: 10, Azan 2/353-54.
 . Sifat P.137; Silsila Za‘eefah H/562, 929, 967; Nayl 3/138-139.
 . Bukhari, Sifat P.136-37 F.N; Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/801; Irwa H/305, 362; P.P. 2/13, 82-83.
 . Ibnu Majah H/1424, Ch: 2, Salat, Para: 201.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/290, Ch: 3, Cleanness; Muslim, Mishkat H/298; Ahmad H/17729; Sifat P. 131.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/5581, Ch: 28, condition of the Day of Resurrection, Para: 4, Hauz (River) and Recommendation; Sifat P. 131.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/129; Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Nasaii, Mishkat H/915, Para: 15, Tashahhud.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/129; Mir‘at 1/704; Do. 3/294-95, H/947, 949.
 . Bukhari, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/792,801; Nayl 3/143-45 Para: ‘the process of sitting in Tashahhud’.
 . Saheeh Ibnu Hibban H/1862, 67, 73; Bukhari H/828, Abu Daud H/730; Do, Mishkat H/791, 801.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/907, Para: 15, Tashahhud.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/906, 908. Like 53 means to fist the youngest, ring & middle fingers and to unite thumb with them and to keep forefinger as it was.
 . Mir‘at 3/229; Albani, Miskhat H/906 F. N.
 . Mir‘at 3/229.
 . Nasaii H/1276; Muslim, Mishkat H/983, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 19.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/757, Para: 8, Limbs to be hidden; Mir‘at H/763, 1/669; Do. 2/473.
 . Albani, Mishkat See F.N.-2 of H/906; Do, Sifatu Sala-tin Nabi P.140; Mir‘at 3/229.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/917, 911; Abu Daud H/990, Nasaii H/1275, Mishkat H/912.
* Qazi ‘Ayaz (476-544 A.H.) says, for including the evidence of the unity of Allah and the evidence of the prophethood of the last messenger due to supremacy on other Doas, this particular sitting of Zikr is called collectively as ‘Tashahhud’. –Mir‘at 3/227.
 . Mir‘at 1/664-65; Do. 3/233-34, See commentary of H/915.
 . Mir‘at 1/678-80; Do. 3/253-55.
 . Nasaii, Mishkat H/922, Para: 16 ‘Darood on the Prophet (sm) and its merit’.
. ‘Mathoorah’ (المأثورة)means ‘narrated in hadeeth’. On that analogy all the Doas narrated in hadeethes are Mathoorah, not only this Doa in particular. But this Doa is popular as ‘Doa-i-Mathoorah’ in this country. -Author.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/940-41.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/813, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 11, What would be read after takbeer.
 . Abu Daud H/793, Ch: 2, salat, Para: 128. Saheeh Ibnu Hibban H/865.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/813, Para : 11, What would be read after takbeer; Nabavi, Riazus Saleheen, Ch: ‘Zikr’ H/1424.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/909; Mir‘at H/915, P. 3/235.
 . Muslim, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/978, Para:19, Things are not allowed and are allowed in salat; Mir‘at H/985, P. 3/339-40.
 . Bukhari H/4522, 6389; Baqarah 2/201; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/2487; Ch: 9, Doas. Para: 9, Substantial Doas.
 . A-le Imran 3/119, 38; Ibraheem 14/39; Ghafir/Mumin 40/19.
 . Baqarah 2/216.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/950, Para: 17, Doa in Tashahhud.
 . Abu Daud, Ibnu Khuzaimah, Sifat P. 168.
 . Albani, Tamamul Minnah P. 171.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/959; Bukhari, with Fathul Bari H/841-42.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/960, Para: 18, Zikr after salat.
 . Bukhari, Muslim, Mishkat H/944-46; Mir‘at H/951-954, See commentary P. 3/300-304.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/947, Para: 17, Doa in Tashahhud.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih; Muslim, Mishkat H/959, 961, Para: 18, Zikr after salat.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/960. Here it can be mentioned that Sheikh Jazhari said, the addition with it ‘Ilaika yarji‘us Salam, Hayena Rabbana bis Salam. Wa Adkhilna Da-raka Da-ras Salam’… is baseless. This is an innovation of some of the gossips. Mishkat, Albani, See F.N. of H/961.
 . Zhilzhal 99/4; Naylul Awtar 4/109-10.
 . The prophet (sm) would say it with His loudest voice after turning into salam. Muslim, Mishkat H/963.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/963, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 18, Zikr after salat.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/949.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih; Mishkat H/962.
 . Abu Daud H/1529, Ch: 2, salat, Para: 361, To seek forgiveness.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/964.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih; Mishkat H/2458, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 8, To seek refuge.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/2301, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 3, Merits of tasbeeh, tahmeed, tahleel & takbeer; Abu Daud H/1503.
 . Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/102 Ch: 1, Iman, Para: 3; Muslim, Mishkat H/89.
 . Tirmizi, Nasaii, Mishkat H/2478. Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 8, To seek refuge.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/2484, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 9, Substantial Doas.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/966, 967, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 18, Zikr after salat.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/967.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat H/2387-88, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 6, What would be said at morning, evening and bed-time.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat H/2296-98, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 3, Merits of tasbeeh, tahmeed, tahleel & takbeer; Bukhari H/7563, Ch: Tawheed, Para: 58.
 . Ibnu Katheer says, ‘the perfect talk is that the kursi and ‘Arsh are seperate things and the ‘Arsh is biggest than the kursi, as it has been proved by hadeethes & Athars (Do, Tafseer). As the Prophet (sm) says, seven skies and earth are smallest as a shackle of iron which is laid on the open field than the kursi and the kursi is smallest than the ‘Arsh as that of a shackle laid on. –Ibnu Katheer, Tafseer Baqarah 2/255; Silsila Saheehah H/109.
 . Nasaii Kubra H/9928, Silsila Saheehah H/972; Miskhat H/974, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 18; Muslim, Bukhari, Mishkat H/2122-23; Ch: 8, Merits of the Quran.
 . Tirmizi, Baihaqi (Da‘watul Kabeer), Mishkat H/2449, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 7, Doas in different times; Saheehah H/266.
 . Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/2353, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 4, To beg pardon and to make repentance; Saheehah H/2727.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/2325, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 4, To beg pardon and to make repentance.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/969, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 18, Zikr after salat.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/2132, Ch: 8, Merits of the Quran.
 . Bukhari (Delhi) P. 1/76, Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/710, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 7, Mosques & Places of sijdah; إِنَّ الْمُصَلِّى يُنَاجِى رَبَّهُ Ahmad, Mishkat H/856, Para: 12, Recitation in Salat.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud & others. Mishkat H/2230 Ch: 9, ‘Doas’, Section: 2.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/312, Ch: 3, cleanness. Para:1, ‘Which makes the ozu as wajib’, Section: 2.
 . Za-dul Ma‘a-d (Beirut: Muassasatur Risalah, 29th edition 1996), p.1/250.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/894, Ch: Salat, Para: 14, Sijdah & its merit; Nayl, 3/109.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/813, Ch: Salat, Para: 11, What is read after takbeer.
 . Ahmad, Mishkat, H/5334, Ch: 26, To soften the heart, Para: 5 ‘To show and make one hear’.
 . Abu Daud, Mishkat H/2244, Ch: Doas.
 . Abu Daud H/1486-87, 89; Do, Mishkat H/2256.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/2243, 2245, 2255, Ch: Doas; Albani says, after Doa to touch over the face by two hands has got no saheeh hadeeth, Mishkat, F. N. of H/2255. vol-2. P. 696; Irwa H/433-34, P. 2/178-82.
 . Muslim H/499, Ch: 1, Iman, Para: 87, Praying of the Prophet (sm) for His Ummah.
 . Muslim H/ 4588, Ch: 32, Jihad, Para: 18.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/3976, Ch: 19, Jihad, Para: 5; Bukhari H/4339, Ch: 80, Doas, Para: 23, Raising hands in Doa.
 . Just after the battle of Hunaiyn at 9th hijrah; Bukhari H/4323, Ch: 64, Wars & Battles, Para: 56.
 . Bukhari, Al-Adabul Mufrad H/611; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/5996.
 . Abu Daud H/1872; Muslim, Mishkat H/2555.
 . Nasaii H/3011.
 . Bukhari H/1751-53, 1/236.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/2760.
 . Saheeh Al-Adabul Mufrad H/461; Fatawa Lajna Daima 8/230-31; Fatawa Arkanil Islam P. 392.
 . Baqarah 2/186, Mumin/Ghafir 40/60; Bukhari, Ch: 80, Doas, Para: 24, 25 & other chapters.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/873, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 13, ‘Ruku’, Nayl 3/109.
 . Bukhari H/4522; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/2487, Ch: 9, Doas. Para: 9, Substantial Doas.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1043; Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/1044, Para: 22, ‘Prohibited times of salat’.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/662, Para: 5, Merits of salat.
 . Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/1171-72; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1165, 1179-80; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/662; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/142-43.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1165, Para: 30, Sunnats & its merit.
 . Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/1066, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 23, Jama-‘at & its merits.
 . Abu Daud H/1006, Para: 195, ‘About the Musalli, who performs Nafl salat in the place of Farz salat’.
 . Abu Daud H/1044; Mishkat H/1300, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 37, ‘waking at the night of Ramazan’.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/714, 1295, Para: 7 & 17; Abu Daud H/1043.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/136.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/137; Irwa H/457. P. 2/209; Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Irwa H/469-70.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Irwa 2/191.
 . Muslim, Sunan, Fiqhus Sunnah 1/137.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/1188, 1206, Para: 31, ‘Salat at night’; Mir‘at 4/168, 191.
 . Tirmizi, Muslim, Mishkat H/1159, Para: 30, Sunnats & its merit.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1160; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/140-41.
 . Abu Daud H/864-66; Tirmizi, Nasaii, Ahmad, Mishkat H/1330 Para: 40, ‘Salatut Tasbeeh’.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/5383, Ch: 27, Mischiefs, Section-1.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/896-97, Para: 14, ‘Sijdah & its merit’.
 . إِذَا أَتَى أَحَدُكُمْ الصَّلاَةَ وَالْإِمَامُ عَلَى حَالٍ فَلْيَصْنَعْ كَمَا يَصْنَعُ الْإِمَامُ Tirmizi H/591, Mishkat H/1142, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 28, Section-2; Sheehul Jame‘ H/261.
 . مَنْ تَوَضَّأَ فَأَحْسَنَ وُضُوءَهُ ثُمَّ رَاحَ فَوَجَدَ النَّاسَ قَدْ صَلَّوْا أَعْطَاهُ اللهُ مِثْلَ أَجْرِ مَنْ صَلاَّهَا وَحَضَرَهَا لاَ يَنْقُصُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أُجُورَهُمْ شَيْئًا Abu Daud H/564; Do, Mishkat H/1145, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 28, Duty of muqtadi to follow and the rule of masbooq.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/686, Para: 6, Azan at delay; Nayl 4/44-46.
 . Muslim H/1560/680, Ch: 5 ‘Mosques’. Para: 55 ‘To say due salat as early as possible is Mustahab’.
 . Nasaii H/662; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/91; Nayl, 2/90.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/603-04, Para: 2, To say salat in advance; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/205.
 . See commentary of H/603, F.N. 2, Mishkat-Albani.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/28, Ch: Iman.
 . Al-Furqan 25/71; Zumar 39/53.
 . Abu Daud H/864-66; Tirmizi, Nasaii, Mishkat H/1330, Para: 40, Salat of Tasbeeh; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/205.